Background: 1950 Indo-Nepal Treaty of Peace and Friendship and Security

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The political situation in Nepal is presently unstable. The adoption and framing of the new constitution has eluded consensus. With the aim of establishing a consensus between the political parties GoI has sent its former foreign secretary Shyam Saran to Nepal in August 2010.


India-Nepal sign MoU for mutual cooperation in election management.


1950 Indo-Nepal Treaty of Peace and Friendship

  • This is a bilateral treaty establishing a close strategic relationship between the two South Asian neighbours.

  • The treaty allows for the free movement of people and goods between the two nations and a close relationship on matters of defence and foreign affairs.

  • The treaty has been unpopular in many segments of Nepal, especially the Maoists, which regard it as a breach of its sovereignty

  • For India, the treaty is a way to contain the Chinese influence in Nepal

  • Present status: The Maoists (Prachanda) have been demanding a revision of the treaty


  • India’s big brother attitude

  • Panchkeshwar Dam

  • Saptkosi Dam

  • Strategic importance of Nepal

  • Close people to people contacts: Cultural ties

  • Security concerns

  • Kalapani dispute

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