Gaganyaan – India′ Manned Mission to Space YouTube Lecture Handouts

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Does India Need a Manned Mission to Space?

Chandrayaan (took 5 years)

Maangalyaan (took 3 years)

Gaganyaan (48 months) – Human Spaceflight Program

In 40 months – mission to space

1st Indian to Space – Rakesh Sharma (in Russian Spacecraft Soyuz T-11)

4th After US, Russia and China

Soviet Union was the first on April 21,1961 - Yuri Gagarin into space

Alan Shepard of USA on 5 May 1961

3rd was China with astronaut Yang Liwei on 15th Oct 2003 (Long March 2F launch vehicle)

4th milestone - India


  • An astronaut is any person who is trained by NASA (star sailor)
  • Cosmonaut by Russia (universe sailor)
  • Taikonaut by China
  • Spationaut by France
  • Indigenously built - 3.7-tonne spacecraft
  • HAL is involved
  • GSLV Mk III (1st unmanned flight in 2014) , the three-stage heavy lift launch vehicle, will be used to launch Gaganyaan as it has the necessary payload capability
  • To reach to orbit – 16 minutes
  • Reach earth back – 36 minutes (care taken to avoid heating up)
  • At 120 km from earth – service module would detach
  • Expected to send 3 people for 7 days
  • Spacecraft will be placed in a low earth orbit of 300 - 400 km
  • Two unmanned Gaganyaan missions will be undertaken prior to sending humans
  • Astronauts - Vyomnauts (Vyom in Sanskrit means space)
  • 2006 – Orbital Vehicle (simple capsule similar to Mercury Class spacecraft)
  • Gaganyaan is based on design of Space Capsule Recovery Experiment (SRE) launched in 2007 from PSLV C7 rocket
  • Training to astronauts by ISRO, IAF and Bengaluru-based Institute of Avian Medicine - 30 months of training for astronauts
  • Training facility near ISRO guest house at Devanahalli (outskirts of Bengaluru) and named as Astronaut Training and Biomedical Engineering Center – 40 - 50 acres (train to survive in zero gravity environment and space journey through water simulation)

Train On

Thermal cycling

Radiation regulation

Centrifugals to train on acceleration aspect

Prototype space suit to build indigenously

Total program is expected to be completed before 2022 (before it was 2025) with the first unmanned flight within 30 months.

Program is expected to cost less than ₹ 10,000 crore

Training facility in Bengaluru to train astronauts

2 liquid propellant engines

Space capsule to have life support and environmental control systems

Crew module - 2.7-metre-long crew module has a three metre diameter with aluminum alloy interiors, composite panels and heat shields was manufactured by Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) and designed to withstand the 100 degrees plus and minus Celsius temperature variations in LEO.

Escape systems – ISRO in 2018 conducted ‘pad abort’ test or Crew Escape System, which is emergency escape measure that helps pull the crew away from the launch vehicle when a mission has to be aborted (safe recovery in case of exigency at launch pad)

ISRO՚s Mission 2022 will include Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) , mission control systems & possible use of the Yuri Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Centre in Star City outside Moscow.

Re-entry - The crew module separated from the rocket at an altitude of 126 km. On board motors controlled and reduced the speed of the module until an altitude of 80 km. Thrusters were shutoff at 80 km and atmospheric drag further reduced speed of the capsule. The module heat shield was expected to experience temperature in excess of 1600 °C. Parachutes were deployed at an altitude of 15 km to slow down the module, which performed a soft landing in Bay of Bengal near Andaman and Nicobar islands.


  • Security – involving human life
  • Cost efficient
  • Will propel India far ahead of others in the area of science and technology
  • Inspire the young generation and all Indians will be proud of it
  • Avoid brain drain
  • Understand human biology and conducive environment to live in space
  • Creation of ecosystem in India
  • Create 15,000 new employment opportunities, 13,000 of them in private industry and the space organisation would need an additional manpower of 900.


  • Without gravity – loss minerals in bones (osteoporosis) – muscle stress, vision problems, travel within rocket (speed 0 to 29000 km/hr and can disintegrate)
  • Radiation in space is 10 times – cancer, nausea, fatigue
  • No atmosphere
  • Behavioral issues – depression, isolation, psychiatric disorders

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