RBI Assistant Exam: National Movement of India 1941 Onwards

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National Movement of India: 1941 to 1950

The Cripps Mission 1942

  • In Dec. 1941, Japan entered the World War II and advanced towards Indian borders. By March 7,1942, Rangoon fell and Japan occupied the entire S E Asia.
  • The British govt. With a view to getting co-operation from Indians sent Sir Stafford Cripps, leader of the House of Commons to settle terms with the Indian leaders.
  • He offered a draft which proposed dominion status to be granted after the war.
  • Rejected by the Congress as it didn՚t want to rely upon future promises.
  • Gandhiji termed it as a post dated cheque in a crashing bank.

The Revolt of 1942 & the Quit India Movement

  • Called the Vardha Proposal and Leaderless Revolt.
  • The resolution was passed on Aug. 8,1942, at Bombay. Gandhiji gave the slogan ‘Do or Die’
  • On Aug 9, the Congress was banned and its important leaders were arrested.
  • The arrests provoked indignation among the masses and, there being no program of action, the movement became spontaneous and violent. Violence spread throughout the country.
  • The movement was however crushed.

The Indian National Army

Founded by Rasbehari Bose with Captain Mohan Singh.

  • S. C. Bose secretly escaped from India in Jain 1941, and reached Berlin. In July 1943, he joined the INA at Singapore. There, Rasbehari Bose handed over the leadership to him.
  • The soldiers were mostly raised from Indian soldiers of the British army who had been taken prisoners by the Japanese after they conquered S. E. Asia.
  • Two INA head quarters were Rangoon and Singapore (formed in Singapore) .
  • INA had three fighting brigades named after Gandhiji, Azad and Nehru. Rani Jhansi Brigade was an exclusive women force.

The Cabinet Mission Plan (1946)

  • The struggle for freedom entered a decisive phase in the year 1945 − 46. The new Labour Party PM. Lord Attlee, made a declaration on March 15,1946, that British Cabinet Mission (comprising of Lord Pethick Lawrence as Chairman, Sir Stafford Cripps and A. V. Alexander) will visit India.
  • The mission held talks with the INC and ML to bring about acceptance of their proposals.
  • On May 16,1946, the mission put towards its proposals. It rejected the demand for separate Pakistan and instead a federal union consisting of British India and the Princely States was suggested.
  • Both Congress and Muslims League accepted it.

Formation of Interim Government (Sept 2,1946)

  • Based on Cabinet Mission Plan, an interim government consisting of Congress nominees was formed on Sept. 2,1946. J. L. Nehru was its Vice-President and the Governor-General remained as its President.

Jinnah՚S Direct Action Resolution (Aug 16,1946)

  • Jinnah was alarmed at the results of the elections because the Muslim League was in danger of being totally eclipsed in the constituent assembly.
  • Therefore, Muslim League withdrew its acceptance of the Cabinet Mission Plan on July 29,1946.
  • It passed a ‘Direct action’ resolution, which condemned both the British Government and the Congress (Aug 16,1946) . It resulted in heavy communal riots.
  • Jinnah celebrated Pakistan Day on Mar 27,1947.

Formation of Constituent Assembly (Dec 9,1946)

  • The Constituent assembly met on Dec 9,1946 and Dr. Rajendra Prasad was elected as its president.

Mountbatten Plan (June 3,1947)

  • On June 3,1947, Lord Mountbatten put forward his plan which outlined the steps for the solution of India՚s political problem. The outlines of the Plan were:
  • India to be divided into India and Pakistan.
  • Bengal and Punjab will be partitioned and a referendum in NEFP and Sylhet district of Assam would be held.
  • There would be a separate constitutional assembly for Pakistan to frame its constitution.
  • The Princely states would enjoy the liberty to join either India or Pakistan or even remain independent.
  • Aug. 15,1947 was the date fixed for handing over power to India and Pakistan.
  • The British govt. Passed the Indian Independence Act of 1947 in July 1947, which contained the major provisions put forward by the Mountbatten plan.

Partition and Independence (Aug 1947)

  • All political parties accepted the Mountbatten plan.
  • At the time of independence, there were 562 small and big Princely States in India.
  • Sardar Vallabh Bhai Patel, the first home minister, used iron hand in this regard. By August 15,1947, all the States, with a few exceptions like Kashmir, Hyderabad and Junagarh had signed the Instrument of Accession. Goa was with the Portuguese and Pondicherry with the French.

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