Aims and Principles of FP, Historical Development: Look East Policy, Gujral Doctrine and Nuclear Policy of India

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SWOT analysis of IFP

What is FP

  • FP refers to the sum total of the principles, interests and objectives which a country formulates in conducting its relations with other countries
  • Serves to further the country՚s interests beyond its frontiers
  • It is dynamic
  • Historical, geographical, political economic, cultural, ideological and other factors influence the formulation of nation՚s FP

Aims of FP

  • Preservation of India՚s territorial integrity and freedom of policy
  • The promotion of international peace
  • Economic development of India

Historical Development

  • Foreign relations of Guptas, Ashoka etc
  • INC established its own Foreign Affairs Department

1954: Panchsheel

Enunciated in the preamble to the “Agreement on trade and intercourse between Tibet Region of China and India”

Five principles

  • Mutual respect for each other՚s territorial integrity and sovereignty
  • Mutual non-aggression
  • Mutual non-interference in each other՚s internal affairs
  • Equality and mutual benefit
  • Peaceful co-existence

The five principles were subsequently incorporated in modified form in a statement of ten principles at the Bandung Conference


See under international bodies

Shimla Agreement, 1972

  • ZA Butto and Indira Gandhi
  • Laid down the principles that should govern their future relations
  • Bound the two countries “to settle their differences by peaceful means through bilateral negotiations”
  • The accord converted the 1949 UN cease-fire line into the Line of Control between India and Pak

Look East Policy

See the doc ‘East Asia’

Gujral Doctrine

Set of five principles to guide the conduct of foreign relations with India՚s immediate neighbours

  • With neighbours like Bangladesh, Bhutan, Maldives, Nepal and Sri Lanka, India does not ask for reciprocity but gives and accommodates what it can in good faith and trust
  • No South Asian country should allow its territory to be used against the interest of another country of the region
  • No country should interfere in the internal affairs of another
  • All SA countries must respect each other՚s territorial integrity and sovereignty
  • They should settle all their disputes through peaceful bilateral negotiations

Criticism of GD

  • Based on a belief in the inherent goodwill of openly hostile neighbours
  • Ineffective to a large extent as there is little reciprocity

Nuclear Policy of India

  • Pokhran 1 and 2
  • For disarmament
  • Against discriminatory treaties
  • India՚s nuclear doctrines < details elsewhere >

Principles of FP

Foundations of Indian FP laid during the freedom movement

Principles of India՚s FP

  • Belief in friendly relations with all countries
  • Resolutions of conflicts by peaceful means
  • Sovereign equality of all states
  • Independence of thought and action as manifested in the principles of non-alignment
  • Equity in conduct of international relations

These principles manifested in the three Ps which form the core of our FP

  • Panchsheel
  • Pragmatism
  • Pursuit of national interest