Case Study of Indore Waste to Income Generation Cleanest City Water Surplus City YouTube Lecture Handouts

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Case Study of Indore: Waste to Income Generation, Cleanest City, Water Surplus City | Answer Writing
  • The success of Indore՚s urban solid waste management shows that urban India can clean up if municipal bodies, NGOs, private companies and citizens come together. This is urgent as India will, by 2050, generate 3.5 times – over 543,200 tonnes or 54,320 truckloads – of the solid waste it produces today, the World Bank estimated in 2018.
  • A mobile composting van near the street food market, 56 Dukaan. All food outlets separate food waste and give it to the Swaha, the company operating this decentralised composter. It is cheaper and more hygienic to process waste near the source of waste production, as fewer people are exposed to the waste.
  • It is also more environmentally sustainable. Indore is trying to set up mobile composting machines, like the one used in the market, near all bulk waste producers such as hotels and residential apartment buildings.
  • Across Indore, on average, Swaha collects about 8 - 10 tonnes of compostable waste daily.

Indore City Cleanest City for the 5th Year

Indore City Cleanest City
  • The IMC earns ₹ 8 crore annually from the plants which convert waste into useful products such as bio-CNG, an official said. The corporation employs about 8,500 sanitary workers in three shifts from 6 am to 4 am - 22 hours a day - to keep the city clean
  • New 550-ton bio CNG plant will increase the income to ₹ 10 crore
  • City generates 300 million liter per day for sewage water
  • About 700 vehicles with compartments to segregate six types of waste IMC dispose 600 ton of wet and dry waste everyday

Indore City Water Surplus City

In August, Indore was also declared the country՚s first ‘Water Plus’ city under the Swachh Survekshan 2021 for cleaning up the Kanh-Saraswati river and 25 small and big drains. This was achieved, primarily, by stopping the release of sewage water in river and drains from 1746 public and 5624 domestic outfalls

Indore City Solid Waste Management

  • A private company has invested ₹ 30 crore under the Public Private Partnership (PPP) mode by setting up a plant to process 300 tonnes of dry waste through artificial intelligence. With its robotic technology, the plant, spread over an area of four acres, segregates dry waste items like plastic, glass and metal.
  • Construction and demolition waste is being turned into bricks, tiles and other stuff, which fetches the civic body ₹ 2.5 crore annually
  • The IMC has given the task of garbage collection to three NGOs.
  • In the first phase, these NGOs have started collecting dry waste from 22,000 households by paying ₹ 2.5 per kg of waste to the house owner
  • Nearly 1,200 tonnes of waste, comprising 550 tonnes of wet waste and 650 tonnes of dry waste, was being disposed of daily in Indore, which has population of about 35 lakhs.
  • Indore today generates over 1,115 MT of garbage a day and all of it is collected from the source whether it is a household or commercial establishment. The door-to-door service was started in January 2016 as a pilot project in two of the 84 wards in the city. It took almost a year to achieve 100 % door-to-door garbage collection. Indore through its commendable collaborative efforts has achieved segregation of waste at source at 100 % of its household՚s and commercial units.
  • Indore has been divided into 19 zones and 85 wards. Each ward has on an average 6,000 households and 600 commercial establishments (part of 88 notified commercial areas) . Indore ensures the 100 % coverage of wards through its door-to-door collection system.
  • The door-to-door collection is done through the use of partitioned vehicles. There are three separate collection bins for wet, dry and domestic hazardous waste in each tipper. These tippers carry the waste from households to the transfer station, from where the waste is transported to the trenching ground in hook loaders. All vehicles used in the collection and transportation system are monitored by a GPS enabled tracking system. The GPS system is constantly monitored by the monitoring cell. Any route deviations by particular drivers are penalized and multiple deviations is also grounds for termination.
  • The wet waste from the domestic generators is collected through the Door-to-Door Collection System. The door-to-door collection system has been deployed by IMC to collect the waste from domestic generators and commercial areas in Indore. The waste is collected through partitioned vehicles known as ‘Tippers’ and transported to the Garbage Transfer Stations for secondary collection.
  • The Weighment Bridge facility is established at the central processing plant. This is the first point of interaction for all the vehicles incoming at the plant. This is a computerized facility where the weight of all the wet waste that is being collected by the door-to-door collection and the bulk collection system is brought to be weighed before it can move to the processing plant.
  • The wet waste is processed in two ways i.e.. , Central Processing Plant & at Decentralized Waste Processing Units. All the wet waste of the bulk generators (50 kg and above) is processed at their premises, so this waste is not processed at the central processing plant. The wet waste from the GTS (D2D Collection) and semi bulk collection (25 to 100 kg) is transported to the central wet waste processing plant, where it is processed into compost.
  • Dry Waste: Dry Waste is defined as the “waste other than bio-degradable waste and inert street sweepings and includes recyclable and non-recyclable waste, combustible waste and sanitary napkin and diapers, etc.”
  • Out of the total waste 58.25 % is the wet (green color) or organic waste, 41.75 % is dry waste (blue color) and 0.5 % is household hazardous and sanitary waste. The total wet waste generation is 650 MTPD (Approximately) and dry waste generation is 465 MTPD (Approximately) .
  • The Domestic Hazardous Waste is sent straight from the GTS to the Central Domestic Hazardous Waste Treatment Facility to be incinerated. This facility is managed by an external contracted agency. The facility is used for the treatment of biomedical and domestic hazardous waste. At this facility the waste is incinerated.
  • Plastic waste collected at plastic waste collection centre is disposed of by two different methods:
    • Sold to cement plant at Neemuch and
    • Sold and used by M. P. Rural Road Development Board for construction of roads. Ten roads have been constructed with in Municipal Corporation by using plastic waste.
  • 100 % door to door collection and storage of waste.
  • To make city bin free so as no storage of waste can be done along roads.
  • Fixing of litter bins in all commercial areas.
  • Establishment of modern transfer stations at strategic locations.
  • Establishment of waste to energy plant.
  • The collected waste is taken to 10 transfer stations across the city, where staff make sure the waste is properly segregated. From these transfer stations, the waste is taken to the waste processing facility.
  • At the facility, 645 tonnes of recyclable waste is daily sifted through and separated by 300-odd workers. Sarthak and Basix, two NGOs that Indore has collaborated with, has further integrated the informal sector to sort waste, said Sambyal of CSE. The recyclable waste is sold to either the recycling industry or to companies that use recycled material.
  • As much as 550 tonnes of organic waste is produced daily. It is converted to compost which is sold to farmers and landscapers as manure. Sometimes it is given free of charge as farmers agree to transport the compost at their own cost.
  • Non-recyclable waste is sent to a cement plant at Neemuch and to the M. P. Rural Road Development Corporation to be used in the construction of roads
  • The programme collected ₹ 27 crore in user fees, while the rest of the operation expenditure was funded by property taxes. Households pay between ₹ 60 and 150 a month based on the waste they generate, and commercial facilities pay ₹ 3 per kg of waste.

Biomethanation Plant for Wholesale Vegetable and Fruit Market

Biomethanation Plant
  • Choitram Mandi is known to be the largest mandi in Central India. Approximately 20 - 25 MTPD fruit and vegetable waste is generated on daily basis. Earlier, the waste was collected and transported to the centralized waste processing and disposal site of IMC, which incurred heavy transportation and manpower cost.
  • Hence, IMC under its policy of promoting decentralized treatment of organic waste established Bio-methnation plant (Bio-CNG Plant) of 20 MTPD (million ton per day) capacity. Through tendering process IMC appointed Mahindra & Mahindra Ltd. Mumbai to establish the plant, which was commissioned in December 2017. The overall project cost is ₹ 15.00 Cr out of which ₹ 7.2 Cr. VGF was provided by IMC. The concession period of the project is 15 years.
  • Presently all the fruit and vegetable waste generated at Choithram Mandi is being collected and processed in the Bio CNG plant. Approximately 800 kg of purified and compressed Bio CNG having 95 % pure Methane gas is generated on daily basis.
  • The pressurized Bio-CNG gas is used as a fuel to operate approximately 15 city buses. The digested slurry is passed through solid liquid separation unit, filtered liquid is used in slurry making and the remaining solid are dried and converted into organic compost.

India՚s Trash Emergency

  • “It has been categorically laid down that (a) clean environment is (the) fundamental right of citizens under Article 21 and it is for the local bodies as well as the State to ensure that public health is preserved by taking all possible steps. For doing so, financial inability cannot be pleaded,” a 2019 order by the National Green Tribunal noted.
  • Cities, with a population of more than 100,000 produce 67,000 tonnes a day or 44 % of the total waste generated in the country, according to this July 18, answer in the Lok Sabha.
  • The NGT had asked the central government and states to form and implement an action plan based on the Solid Waste Management Rules, 2016. After pushing the deadline several times, the NGT announced that any state or union territory which does not comply with these statutory obligations shall be liable to be proceeded against as per the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986, the NGT said. The state would be asked to pay a fine, and the senior officer of the state or local body could also be personally liable, the order added.

Mayank