Multipurpose River-Projects, Indian Polity, Tungabhadra Project (Andhra and Karnataka)

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Multipurpose River-Projects

Tungabhadra Project (Andhra and Karnataka)

It is a joint undertaking by the governments of Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka. The project comprises a dam across the Tungabhadra River near Mallapuram.

Ukai Project

The Ukai power project of Gujarat equipped with power generating sets manufactured by Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited was inaugurated on October 12,1977. It has added 540,00 MW of installed capacity to the State՚s existing power network.

Upper Krishna (Karnataka)

A Project consisting of Narayanpur dam across the Krishna River and a dam at Almatti.

Upper Penganga (Maharashtra)

Two reservoirs on Penganga River at Isapur are Yavalmal district and the other on Rayadhu River at Sapli in Parbhani district.

Uri Power Project

It is located on the river Jhelum in the Uri Tehsil of Baramulla district in Jammu and Kashmir. It is a 480 mw hydroelectric project which was dedicated to the nation on February 13,1997.

Indian Polity

Constituent Assembly

  • The election to the Constituent Assembly based on the Cabinet Mission՚s Plan took place in July 1946. The sets in each Province were distributed among the three main communities, Muslims, Sikh and General, in proportion to their respective populations. The election was indirect in that members of each community in the Provincial Assemblies elected their own representatives by the method of proportional representation with single transferable vote. The Constituent Assembly first met on 9th December 1946, without the members of the Muslim League.
  • Dr. Rajendra Prasad was elected President and various committees were appointed to draft the different parts of the Constitution. As a result of the Partition and the Indian Independence Act of 1947, which provided for separate Constituent Assemblies for India Pakistan, separate Constituent Assembly was set up for Pakistan.
  • The Constituent Assembly of India reassembled on 14 August 1947, as the Sovereign Constituent Assembly for the Dominion of India. The membership of the Assembly was reduced to 299 when it met again on 31 October 1947 with some members ceasing to be so after their Provinces opted to join Pakistan.


  • The Constituent Assembly appointed a Drafting Committee on 29 August 1947 under the Chairmanship of Dr. B. R. Ambedkar. The members included N. Gopalaswamy Ayyangar, Alladi Krishnaswamy Ayyar, K. M. Munshi Mohammad Sadullah, B. L. Mitter and Dr. D. P. Khaitan. The last two were replaced by N. Madhava Rao and T. T. Krishnamachari respectively. A draft Constitution of India was published in February 1948. The Assembly met in November 1948 to consider the draft clause by clause. The second reading was completed by 17 October 1949. On 14 November the Assembly sat for the third reading and finished it on 26 November 1949. On that date the constitution received the signature of the President of the Assembly, Dr. Rajendra Prasad, and was declared as passed. The Provisions relating to citizenship, elections, provisional Parliament, etc. came into effect immediately. i.e.. from 26 November 1949.
  • The rest of the Constitution came into force on 26 January 1950 the date which is referred to in the Constitution as the date of its commencement. The date was specifically chosen for the inauguration of the Indian Republic as it was on 26 January 1930 that the historic call for “Purna Swaraj” as a goal was passed at the Lahore Session of the Congress. The final session of the Constituent Assembly was held on 24 January 1950 when it unanimously elected Dr. Rajendra Prasad as the First President of the Republic of India under the new Constitution.

Constitution of India

  • The Constitution of a country is a very important document. No Government can be run without a clear set of laws. This set of laws is commonly known as Constitution.
  • Our Constitution was framed by an elected body called “The Constituent Assembly” . This assembly started its work on 9 December 1946 in the Central Hall of our Parliament House in New Delhi. Dr. Rajendra Prasad, who was elected the first President of India in 1952, was the Chairman of the Constituent Assembly.
  • Among other important members of the assembly were Jawaharlal Nehru, Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, Maulana Abul Kalam Azad, Dr. Shyama Prasad Mukherji, Dr. B. R. Ambedkar, Dr. K. M. Munshi, Dr. S. Radha Krishnan, Alladi Krishna swami, Mrs. Sarojini Naidu and Mrs. Vijayalakshmi Pundit. Dr. B. R. Ambedkar was the Chairman of the Drafting Committee which prepared the draft of the Constitution.
  • The Drafting Committee studied the Constitution of many Countries such as U. K. , U. S. A. , Ireland, U. S. S. R. , France and Switzerland. The draft was discussed and debated in detail by the Assembly. The Constitution was finally signed by the members on 26 November, 1949. The Constitution came into force on 26th January 1950. On this day India became a “Sovereign Democratic Republic” .

Salient Features

  • Preamble: Our Constitution has a Preamble or a statement of the Constitution. The Preamble opens with the words, “We the People of India” . The people resolve to secure to all the citizens of India Justice, Liberty, Equality and Fraternity.

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