Roadways, Air Transport, Defence and Security and Important Submarines, Missile Boats and War Ships

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Road Network

With a network of 2.7 million kilometres of road length, India has the Third largest road network in the world. From a road length of about 4 lakh kilometres in 1950 - 51. The road network has expanded nearly Seven-Fold.

National Highways

The National Highway System is the primary road grid of the Country. The construction and maintenance of National Highways is the direct responsibility of the Central Government. National Highways have a total length of 34,258 kilometres. National Highways carry nearly 40 % of the total traffic.

Highways Authority

The main task of the authority is to takeover in a phased manner, the construction, maintenance and operation of the national highways. Before the constitution of the authority the maintenance of the roads was done by the State PWDs.

Twelve of the principal highways are:

  • Delhi-Amritsar
  • Delhi-Kolkanda
  • Agra-Mumbai
  • Jalandhar-Srinagar-Uri
  • Delhi-Ahmedabad-Mumbai
  • Chandigarh-Manali
  • Ambala-Shimla-Tibet
  • Jorhat-Shillong-Bangladesh
  • Manali-Leh
  • Pathankot-Mandi
  • Cochin-Madurai
  • Beawar-Sirohi-Kandla

Air Transport

The International Airport Authority of India (IAAI) was set up in 1972 manages the international airports. J. R. D. Tata was the first to make a solo flight from Mumbai to Karachi, (Now in Pakistan) in 1931.

Following Are the Important International Airports

  • Anna International Airport, Chennai.
  • Jawaharlal Nehru Airport (Santa-Cruz) , Mumbai.
  • Indira Gandhi International Airport at New Delhi.
  • Subash Chandra Bose Airport (Dum-Dum) at Kolkata.
  • Rajasansi Airport at Amritsar, Punjab.
  • The National Airport Authority manages 88 domestic aerodromes and nearly 28 civil enclaves in which 23 are classified as major airport, 43minor and 22 as intermediate airports.

Following Are Some of the Inland Aerodromes

  • Kamaraj Domestic-Chennai
  • Safdarganj-New Delhi
  • Juhu-Mumbai
  • Begumpet-Hyderabad
  • Thiruvananthapuram-. Kerala

Defence and Security

Defence and Security
Supreme CommanderPresident of India
Administrative controlMinistry of Defence
  • ARMY: is headed by the Chief of Army Staff and its headquarters is at New Delhi.
  • India՚s Battle Tanks: (1) Vijayanta battle tank; (2) Arjun: Indigenously built Main Battle Tank (MBT) inducted in 1993; (3) T-55 and T-72 purchased from Russia.
  • AIR FORCE: is headed by the Chief of Air Staff and its headquarters is at New Delhi.
  • Aircrafts: MIG-29 aircraft were acquired from Russia and have been named Baaz. MIG-23, MIG-25 and MIG-27 are the other types of MIG aircrafts.

MIG-21 is being manufactured by Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) to serve as jet training aircraft.

  • The Defence Research & Development Organisation (DRDO) has developed a Pilotless Target Aircraft which has been named Lakshya.
  • India also acquired the Mirage-2000 from France, which has been named Vajra.
  • NAVY: is headed by the Chief of Naval Staff and its headquarters is at New Delhi.
  • No. of Fleets: (a) Western Fleet (b) Eastern Fleet

Aircraft Carriers

  • INS Vikrant: India՚s first aircraft carrier
  • INS Viraat: India՚s largest aircraft carrier

Important Submarines/Missile Boats/War Ships

  • INS Vibhuti: Country՚s first indigenously built missile boat.
  • INS Chakra: India՚s first nuclear powered submarine. It has now been decommissioned and returned to Russia.
  • INS Vipul: Second indigenously built missile boat.
  • INS Savitri: India՚s first warship.
  • INS Shalki: India՚s first indigenously built submarine.
  • INS Delhi: India՚s largest, most sophistiated, indigenously built warship.
  • INS Nashak: Third indigenously built missile boat joined the Navy in 1994.

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