Location, Time Zone, Population, Area, Landforms and Northern and North-Eastern Mountains

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Location

Q: Why is India՚s north-south distance (3214 km) more than the east-west distance (2933) , though both latitudinal and longitudinal extent of India is about 30 degree?

A: This is because the distance between the longitudes decreases near the pole whereas the distances between latitudes remain the same everywhere.

Time Zone

  • There is a general convention to select the standard time zone meridian in multiples of 7o30՚ of longitude. There are 24 time zones on earth, each 15 degree apart.
  • USA uses multiple time zone system (7 time zones)
  • India has the longest international boundary with Bangladesh.
  • Tropic of Cancer passes through the following 8 states
    • Gujarat
    • Rajasthan
    • MP
    • CG
    • Jharkhand
    • WB
    • Tripura
    • Mizoram
  • Gujarat has the longest coast line.
  • UP borders the maximum number of states: 8
    • HP
    • Haryana
    • Uttarakhand
    • Rajasthan
    • MP
    • CG
    • Bihar
    • Jharkhand

Population

  • Highest: UP > Maha > Bihar > WB
  • Lowest: Sikkim < Mizoram < Arunachal < Goa

Area

  • Highest: Rajasthan > MP > Maha ≫ Andhra
  • Lowest: Goa < Sikkim < Tripura < Nagaland < Mizoram

Landforms

Three Geological divisions:

  • The peninsular block
  • The Himalayas and other Peninsular Mountains
  • Indo-Ganga-Brahmaputra Plain

Peninsular block is made of gneisses (metamorphic) and granites (igneous) .

Six physiographic divisions:

  • The Northern and North-eastern Mountains
  • The Northern Plain
  • The Peninsular Plateau
  • The Indian Desert
  • The Coastal Plains
  • The Islands

Northern and North-Eastern Mountains

  • Approximate length of the Great Himalayan range: 2500 KM. Width: 160 - 400 KM
  • Impact of Himalayas on the climate of India.

It can be divided into five sub-divisions:

  • Kashmir (or North-western) Himalayas
  • Himachal and Uttaranchal Himalayas
  • Darjeeling and Sikkim Himalayas
  • Arunachal Himalayas
  • Eastern Hills and Mountains

Kashmir Himalayas

  • Ranges: Karakoram, Ladakh, Zaskar, Pir Pinjal
  • Glaciers: Baltoro, Siachen
  • Passes: Zoji La (Great Himalayas) , Banihal (Pir Pinjal) , Photu La (Zaskar) and Khardung La (Ladakh)
  • Lakes: (freshwater) Dal and Wular; (saltwater) Pangong Tso and Tso Moriri
  • Pilgrimage: Vaishno Devi, Amarnath Cave, Charar-e-Sharif
  • They are also famous for Karewa formations which are useful for the cultivation of Zafran (a local variety of Saffron) . Karewas are the thick deposits of glacial clay and other materials embedded with moraines.
  • Kashmir is located on the banks of Jhelum river.
  • Meanders is a typical feature associated with the rivers in this region.
  • In South, there are longitudinal valleys called duns, Jammu dun and Pathankot dun

Himachal and Uttarakhand Himalayas

  • Lies between rivers Ravi and Kali
  • Drained by two major river systems: Indus and Ganga
  • Northernmost part is an extension of the Ladakh desert, lies in Spiti.
  • Ranges: Great Himalayan Range, Lesser Himalayas (Dhaoladhar in HP and Nagtibha in Uttarakhand) , Shivalik range
  • Pilgrimage: Gangotri, Yamunotri, Kedarnath, Badrinath, Hemkund Sahib and the five famous prayags (Refer to Panch Prayag)
  • Famous for hill stations: Dharamshala, Mussoorie, Shimla, Kaosani; Cantt. : Kasauli, Almora, Lansdowne, Ranikhet
  • The important distinguishing features of this area are the ‘Shivalik’ and ‘Dun formations’ .
  • Important duns: Chandigarh-Kalka, Nalagarh, Dehra, Harike, Kota
  • Dehradun is the largest of all duns: Length – 35 - 45 KM, Width: 22 - 25 KM
  • Inhabited with the Bhotia tribe. They migrate to higher reaches (Bugyals) in summer and return to the valleys during winters.

Darjeeling and Sikkim Himalayas

  • Between Nepal Himalayas and Bhutan Himalayas.
  • Fast flowing rivers such as Tista
  • Peaks: Kanchenjunga
  • Tribe: Lepcha
  • Has a mixed population of Nepalis, Bengalis and Tribals from Central India.
  • Importance: Due to the moderate slope, it is best suited for tea plantations. < India produces about 26 pc of tea in the world: second after China. Also, accounts for 12 pc of tea exports; fourth in the world. >
  • Duar formations are peculiar to this region.

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