Computer & Main Parts of Computer – Software and MS Word, Network Related Terms

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Network Related Terms

  • Protocol - It is set of rules and standards which is used by computers to exchange data or information with each other across a network.
  • Nodes - It is a connect point where either data transmission ends or redistribution of data starts.
  • TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol) - basic communication language or protocol of the Internet.
  • IPV4 - 32 bits numeric address
  • IPV6 - 128 bits hexadecimal address.
  • File Transfer Protocol (FTP) is a standard network protocol used to transfer computer files between a client and server on a computer network.
  • Internet service provider (ISP) is an organization that provides services for accessing and using the Internet.
  • Network Service Provider (NSP) is a company that provides backbone services to an Internet service provider (ISP) .
  • Web server is a program that uses HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) to serve the files that form Web pages to users, in response to their requests, which are forwarded by their computers՚ HTTP clients. ♣
  • Website is a collection of related web pages, including multimedia content, typically identified with a common domain name ♣
  • Web Page is a hypertext document connected to the World Wide Web.
  • Home page - the introductory page of a website.
  • Hyperlink is a word, phrase, or image that you can click on to jump to a new document or a new section within the current document.
  • Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is an application protocol for distributed, collaborative, hypermedia information systems.
  • Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) is a technical standard for accessing information over a mobile wireless network.
  • URL (Uniform Resource Locator) is a form of URI and is a standardized naming convention for addressing documents accessible over the Internet and Intranet.


  • Internet- a global computer network providing a variety of information and communication facilities, consisting of interconnected networks using standardized communication protocols.
  • Modem - a combined device for modulation and demodulation, for example, between the digital data of a computer and the analogue signal of a telephone line.
  • Web Browser - Web browser is a software application used to locate, retrieve and display content on the World Wide Web, including Web pages, images and video.

Some Important File Extensions

Some Important File Extensions
. docMicrosoft Word Document
. pptPowerPoint Presentation
. bmpBitmap Image File
. jpgJPEG Image
. xlsExcel Spreadsheet
. exeWindows Executable File
. bakBackup File


Software - the programs and other operating information used by a computer.

Types of Software

Types of Software
System softwareApplication softwareProgramming software
Operating softwareEducational softwareText editor
LoaderSpreadsheet softwareCompiler
Data driverWord processorsInterpreter
  • Operating system software -An operating system (OS) is system software that manages computer hardware and software resources and provides common services for computer programs. The operating system is a component of the system software in a computer system.
  • Functions of operating system - The basic functions of an operating system are: Booting the computer. Performs basic computer tasks eg managing the various peripheral devices eg mouse, keyboard. Provides a user interface, e. g. command line, graphical user interface (GUI) .
  • Spreadsheet software - A software interface consisting of an interactive grid made up of cells in which data or formulas are entered for analysis or presentation.
  • Word processors - a program or machine for storing, manipulating, and formatting text entered from a keyboard and providing a printout.
  • Compiler - A compiler is a computer program (or a set of programs) that transforms source code written in a programming language (the source language) into another computer language (the target language) , with the latter often having a binary form known as object code.
  • Interpreter - a program that can analyse and execute a program line by line.
  • Database management system - software that handles the storage, retrieval, and updating of data in a computer system.
  • Antivirus Software - Anti-virus software is a program or set of programs that are designed to prevent, search for, detect, and remove software viruses, and other malicious software like worms, trojans, adware, and more.
  • Boot - The boot process is the name for the various steps the computer takes after you turn it on, all the way until the operating system is loaded.
  • Cold Boot - The start-up of a computer from a powered-down, or off, state. Also called a hard boot.
  • Warm Boot - restarting a computer via the operating system.

Microsoft Office

MS Office: Microsoft Office or Microsoft Office System is a collection of computer programs made by Microsoft. The programs are created for all users. There are different versions of the software for home users and for business users.

  • It was first announced by Bill Gates of Microsoft on August 1,1988 at COMDEX in Las Vegas.
  • MS office primarily includes Word, Excel, PowerPoint, Access and Outlook. It also includes OneNote, Groove, InfoPath and Publisher.

MS Word

  • Microsoft Word is a word processor developed by Microsoft.
  • It is used for creating, editing, formatting, storing, retrieving and printing of a text document.
  • Microsoft Word՚s native file formats are denoted either by a . doc or . docx file extension.

Some Important Tools in Microsoft Word

  • Header and Footer option is used to display information such as title and page number of the document.
  • Title Bar -The bar at the top of the window that bears the name of the window.
  • Menu Bar - A screen element of MS Word that is usually located below the title bar that provides categorised option.
  • Thesaurus - is used for finding a synonym for a word in the document.
  • Style - Changes the style of the selected text
  • Font - Changes the font for the selected text
  • Font Size - Changes the point size of the selected text
  • Bold - Makes the selected text bold
  • Italic - Makes the selected text italic
  • Underline - Underlines the selected text
  • Align Left, Align Right, Centre - Aligns the selected text/paragraph
  • Justify - Justifies the selected text/paragraph
  • New - Creates a new, blank document
  • Open - Displays the Open dialog box so that you can retrieve an existing document
  • Save, Print, Print Preview - Saves the active document to a specified location, prints active document Displays what the document will look like when you print it
  • Spell Checker - Checks active document for spelling and grammatical errors
  • Cut, Copy, Paste - Cuts the selected text and places it on the clipboard then Copies Select text and Pastes the contents of the clipboard to a new location
  • Undo - Undoes the last document change
  • Redo - Redoes the last action that was undone
  • Insert Hyperlink - Creates a hyperlink from the selected text.