Conjunctions English Grammar YouTube Lecture Handouts

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What Are Conjunctions?

  • Words that link words, phrases and clauses together are called conjunctions
  • Allows to avoid the choppiness of short sentences
  • Maria loves chocolate ice- cream. Sara loves chocolate ice-cream
  • Maria and Sara loves chocolate ice- cream

Types of Conjunctions

  • Coordinating conjunctions
  • Correlative conjunctions
  • Subordinating conjunctions

Coordinating Conjunctions

  • Join words, phrases and clauses of equal grammatical ranking
  • Remember them as FANBOYS
  • For, and, nor, but, or, yet or so
  • Eg: We needed a place to spend time, so we went to the restaurant. Rhea didn՚t have money, but she came by.

Correlative Conjunctions

  • These are pairs of conjunctions that work together
  • Examples Neither/nor , either/or, but/also
  • Neither Chris nor Meg passed the test
  • You can either be a scientist or a painter
  • Not only have I finished the homework, but also has finished my essay

Subordinating Conjunctions

  • Conjunctions that join dependent and independent clauses
  • Signals a cause effect relationship , a contrast or any other relationship between the clauses
  • Because, since, as, although, though, while, whereas etc.
  • Eg: I can stay out until my mom calls
  • Here , a part of a sentence can stand as an independent clause

How to Start a Sentence with a Conjunction

  • Use a subordinating Conjunction in case where the dependent clause comes before the independent clause
  • Have a safe trip. And don՚t forget to call when you get home.
  • Rahul flung open the door. But there was no one on the other side.

Examples of Subordinating Conjunctions

After, although, as, as if, as long as, as much as, as soon as, as though, because, before, by the time, even if, even though, if, in order that, in case, event that, lest, now that, once, only, only if, provided that, since, so, supposing, that, than, though, till, unless, until, when, whenever, where, whereas, wherever, whether or not, while


1) We can go out now … . later.

2) John can՚t speak Japanese … . he can speak Chinese

3) I was late … I decided to take a taxi to work

4) My classmate didn՚t study for the test … she passed

5) In the end, the company didn՚t make money … . did it lose money

6) Seoul is a large city … it is located in Asia

7) The universe is a big place … . there may be intelligent life out there

8) I am not really hungry, … that apple pie looks delicious.

9) Elephants are big, … . blue Whales are even bigger