# Thermodynamics Basics for RRB JE 2020

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Thermodynamics: Laws Of Thermodynamics And Heat Transfer Processes (Environmental Science)

## Laws of Thermodynamics

• First Law:

Stated by Mayer and Helmholtz

Energy can neither be created nor destroyed by any physical or chemical change. It may change from one form to another.

Where,

• Second Law:

According to Kelvin, it is impossible to take heat from a cold reservoir and convert it into work without at the same time transferring heat from a hot to cold reservoir.

• Third Law:

It is not possible to reduce the temperature of any system to absolute zero by any method involving finite number of operations, however, the ideal method may be.

## Heat Transfer Processes

• Planck’s Law

Every object emits over the entire electromagnetic spectrum.

• Stefan-Boltzmann Law

Total energy emitted by a black body is directly proportional to fourth power of its temperature.

• Wien's Displacement Law

The product of peak wavelength and temperature of a blackbody radiator is constant.

## Material Balance

• Also known as Mass balance.

• Used to find the accumulation of a contaminant/ pollutant/ substance in a particular region.

• Those particular region are also called as control volume.

## Mass Balance Equation

Accumulation rate = Input rate – Output rate + Reaction rate

Input rate = Output rate

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