SAT Questions and Answers Model Paper-1 Important Questions Section C

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SECTION – C

Time – 25 Minutes

23 Questions

1. Abida quickly realized that the director was extremely ------: She and the other cast members could never anticipate how he would respond.

(A) Negative

(B) Boring

(C) Unpredictable

(D) Humorous

(E) Courageous

2. Flannery O’Connor was ----- as a writer of ------ talent in her career, receiving high praise for her short stories while she was still a student.

(A) Criticized. . Little

(B) Challenged. . Famous

(C) Celebrated. . Shallow

(D) Condemned. . Amazing

(E) Recognized. . Considerable

3. The bee hummingbird has an average length of only two inches, making it the most ------- of all hummingbird species.

(A) Voracious

(B) Diminutive

(C) Capricious

(D) Superfluous

(E) prodigal

4. Naturally, ------ facilities friendships: the people we live near or interact with frequently are more likely to become our friends.

(A) Enmity

(B) Proximity

(C) Beneficence

(D) Partisanship

(E) Magnanimity

5. Able to survive subzero temperatures, long periods of darkness, and days without food, the arctic wolf is clearly a very ----- animal.

(A) Greedy

(B) Social

(C) Cunning

(D) hardy

(E) Aggressive

6. Ellen respects Gary’s qualities of broad-mindedness and humanism; she cannot, however, ------- them with his ------- support of a political creed that seems to oppose precisely those qualities.

(A) Repudiate. . Jingoistic

(B) Undermine. . Wavering

(C) Assuage. . Logical

(D) Reconcile. . Dogmatic

(E) Acknowledge. . Polemical

7. The paucity of autobiographical documents left by the royal attendants has compelled historian Raul Salazar to ------- the motives of these courtiers from their -------- rather than from any diaries or correspondence.

(A) Stipulate. . Accomplishments

(B) Contemplate. . Journals

(C) Surmise. . Deeds

(D) Allege. . Assertions

(E) Elicit. . Missives

8. The painter lamented the evanescence of beauty, even though she seemed in several of her works to have ------ it as it passed and so ------- it for posterity.

(A) Seized. . Absolved

(B) Vanquished. . Perpetuated

(C) Arrested. . Preserved

(D) Neglected. . Established

(E) Dispelled. . Enshrined

Start Passage

Questions 9-13 are based on the following passages.

Passage 1

Line No. Passage
Line No. Passage

Line No.

Passage

5

Ecotourism has been broadly defined as recreational travel that is focused on the natural environment and that seeks to minimize its impact on that environment. However, there is little doubt that increasing numbers of Eco tourists also pose a threat to the quantity and

10

Sustainability of natural ecosystems, Numerous accounts of toursits’ “loving nature to death” have been reported, and concern is growing that ecotourism is becoming nothing more than a “green” label that dresses up Exploitative and destructive human behavior. Despite

15

Widespread advocacy for education as a solution to minimizing Eco tourists’ impacts on the natural environment, few tests of the effectiveness of educational programs in controlling tourists’ behavior have been conducted.

Passage 2

Line No. Passage
Line No. Passage

20

Although a substantial part of tourism is the “sun, surf, and sand” variety, the fastest-growing segment is ecotourism. There is, however, substantial concern about the potential negative impacts of ecotourism on the environment and about the necessity to plan and regulate

25

Ecotourism to prevent them. There clearly have been abuses and mismanaged activities. Better planning and regulation are essential. Yet ecotourism brings many people into environments in which they can learn about the locale and learn environmental principles that can

Heighten their awareness of and commitment to environmental protection in general. Increased emphasis on environmental learning as part of ecotourism could help prevent or reduce ecotourism’s negative impacts.

9. The authors of both passages would most likely agree that ecotourism

(A) is most popular in sunny coastal environments

(B) May harm the environment it claims to value

(C) May soon be more common than other types of tourism

(D) Serves to educate the public about environmental issues

(E) Should be tightly regulated in order to minimize its impact

10. Unlike passage 2, passage 1 primarily emphasizes ecotourism’s

(A) Economic consequences

(B) Educational value

(C) Increasing popularity

(D) Uncertain origins

(E) Damaging effects

11. The author of passage 2 would most likely characterize the tourists who love “nature to death” (passage 1, line 7) as

(A) Evidence of the need for further environmental education

(B) Proof that ecotourism should be banned within fragile ecosystems

(C) Concerned about the impact of their actions

(D) Unaware of the regulations governing ecotourism

(E) Insincere in their interest in the environment

12. In line 15, “conducted” most nearly means

(A) Performed

(B) Channeled

(C) Transmitted

(D) Escorted

(E) Directed

13. Which statement best characterizes the relationship between the two passages?

(A) Passage 2 provides a historical perspective on a situation that passage 1 portrays as a recent problem.

(B) Passage 2 takes a positive stance on an issue that passage 1 presents somewhat pessimistically.

(C) Passage 2 provides personal experience with a phenomenon passage 1 considers theoretically.

(D) Passage 2 suggests an innovative solution to a puzzle outlined in passage 1.

(E) Passage 2 provides evidence that counters a criticism raised in passage 1.

End Passage

Start passage

Questions 14-23 are based on the following passage.

The following passage is adapted from a 2002 book about modern medicine.

2002 Book About Modern Medicine
2002 book about modern medicine

Line No.

Passage

5

The explanation of pain that has dominated much of medical history originated with Rene Descartes, more than three centuries ago. Descartes proposed that pain is a purely physical phenomenon – that tissue injury stimulates specific nerves that transmit an impulse

10

To the brain, causing the mind to perceive pain. The phenomenon, he said, is like pulling on a rope to ring a bell in the brain. It is hard to overstate how ingrained this account has become. In everyday medicine, doctors see pain in Descartes’s terms – as a physical process,

15

A sign of tissue injury. We look for a ruptured disk or a fracture and we try to fix what’s wrong.

The limitations of this mechanistic explanation, however, have been apparent for some time, since people with obvious injuries sometimes report feeling no pain

20

At all. In the 1960s researches proposed that Descartes’s model be replaced with what they called the gate control; theory of pain. They argued that before pain signals reach the brain, they must first go through a gating mechanism in the spinal cord, which could ratchet them up or down.

25

In some cases, this hypothetical gate could simply stop pain impulses from getting to the brain.

Their most startling suggestion was that what controlled the gate was not just signals from sensory nerves but also emotions and other “output” from the brain. They were

30

Saying that pulling on the rope need not make the bell ring. The bell itself – the mind – could stop it. This theory prompted a great deal of research into how such factors as mood, gender and beliefs influence the experience of pain. In a British study, for example, researchers measured pain

35

Threshold and tolerance levels in 52 ballet dancers and 53 university students by using a common measurement known as the cold pressor test. The test is ingeniously simple. (I tried it at home myself.) After immersing your hand in body – temperature water for two minutes to

40

Establish a baseline condition, you dunk your hand in a bowl of ice water and start a clock running. You mark the time when it begins to hurt: that is your pain threshold. Then you mark the time when it hurts no much to keep your hand in the water: that is your pain tolerance. The

45

Test is always stopped at 120 seconds, to prevent injury.

The results were striking. On average female students reported pain at 16 seconds and pulled their hands out of the ice water at 37 seconds. Female dancers went almost three times as long on both counts. Men in both groups

50

Had a higher threshold and tolerance for pain, but the difference between male dancers and male nondancers was nearly was nearly as large? What explains that difference? Probably it has something to do with the psychology of Ballet dancers---a group distinguished by

55

Self-discipline, physical fitness, and competitiveness, as well as by a high rate of chronic injury. Their driven personalities and competitive culture evidently inure them to pain. Other studies along these lines have shown that extraoverts have greater pain tolerance than introverts

60

And that, with training, one can diminish one’s sensitivity to pain. There is also striking evidence that very simple kinds of mental suggestion can have powerful effects on pain. In one study of 500 patients undergoing dental procedures, those who were given a placebo injection and

65

reassured that it would relieve their pain had the least discomfort – not only less than the patients who got a placebo and were told nothing but also less than the patients who got a real anesthetic without any reassuring comment that it would work. Today it is abundantly

70

Evident that the brain is actively involved in the experience of pain and is no mere bell on a string. Today every medical textbook teaches the gate control theory as fact. There’s a problem with it, though. It explains people who have injuries but feel no pain, but it doesn’t explain the

75

Reverse, which is far more common – the millions of people who experience chronic pain, such as back pain, with no signs of injury whatsoever. Gate control theory accepts Descartes’s view that what you feel as pain is a signal from tissue injury transmitted by nerves to the

80

Brain, and it adds the notion that the brain controls a gateway for such an injury signal. But in the case of something like chronic back pain, there often is no injury. So where does the pain come from? The rope and clapper are gone, but the bell is still ringing.

14. The primary purpose of the passage is to

(A) Describe how modern research has updated an old explanation

(B) Argue for the irrelevance of a popular theory

(C) Support a traditional view with new data

(D) Promote a particular attitude toward physical experience

(E) Propose an innovative treatment for a medical condition

15. Which statement best describes Descartes’s theory of pain as presented in lines 3-8 (“Descartes . . . brain”)?

(A) The brain can shut pain off at will.

(B) The brain plays no part in the body’s experience of pain.

(C) Pain can be triggered in many different ways.

(D) Pain is a highly personal phenomenon.

(E) Pain is an automatic response to bodily injury.

16. In line 11, “sign” most nearly means

(A) Symbol

(B) Gesture

(C) Image

(D) Indication

(E) Omen

17. The author implies that the reason the gate control theory was “startling” (line 23) was that it

(A) Offered an extremely novel explanation

(B) Ran counter to people’s everyday experiences

(C) Undermined a respected philosopher’s reputation

(D) Was grounded in an incomprehensible logic

(E) Was so sensible it should have been proposed centuries before

18. The author does which of the following in lines 25-27 (“They . . . it”)?

(A) Employs a previously used comparison to explain a newly introduced idea

(B) Cites an aforementioned study to disprove a recently published claim

(C) Signals a digression from the main line of the argument

(D) Invokes figurative language to note the drawbacks of an approach

(E) Uses personification to explicate the intricacies of a theory

19. In line 49, “psychology” most nearly means

(A) Mental makeup

(B) Emotional trauma

(C) Manipulative behavior

(D) Clinical investigation

(E) Underlying meaning

20. The author suggests that “extroverts” (line 55) are like ballet dancers with respect to their

(A) Reaction to social situations

(B) Sense of group identity

(C) Response to physical stimuli

(D) Need for the attention of others

(E) Peculiar attraction to suffering

21. A defender of the gate control theory would most logically argue that the “problem” (line 68) may lie not with the theory but with

(A) Medical professionals’ unwillingness to accept it as a thoroughly verified hypothesis

(B) Diagnostic tools that cannot detect the injuries causing currently inexplicable conditions

(C) Doctors who misdiagnose intermittent Pin as chronic pain

(D) The unfortunate tendency to medicate even minor ailments

(E) The willingness of people to subject themselves to stresses that lead to unconventional injuries

22. The author refers to “chronic back pain” (line 77) as an example of something that is

(A) Costly, because it afflicts millions of people

(B) Dubious, because it is often claimed fraudulently

(C) Puzzling, because it something has no apparent cause

(D) Frustrating, because it does not improve with therapy

(E) Tantalizing, because it lies beyond the reach of medicine

23. The last sentence of the passage (“the rope . . . ringing”) serves primarily to express

(A) The incomprehensibility of scientific judgments

(B) The inadequacy of abstract metaphors

(C) The futility of theoretical inquiry

(D) A conundrum that faces researchers

(E) An ambiguity at the heart of science

NOTE: The reading passages in this test are generally drawn from published works, and this material is sometimes adapted for testing purpose. The ideas contained in the passages do not necessarily represent the opinions of the College Board.

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