Background, Perception of Each Other, Major Outstanding Issues and Economic Relations

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  • India was the second non-communist state to recognize PRC in 1949

  • The 16th state to establish diplomatic relations with PRC in 1950

  • 1954: eight-year agreement on Tibet - Panchsheel

  • 1962: War

  • 1960s-70s: Sino-Indian relations deteriorated because

    • War

    • Sino-Pakistani relations improved

    • Sino-Russian relations deteriorated

  • 1967: Nathu La incident; Chola incident

  • 1976: Restored ambassadorial relations

  • 1979: External Affairs minister AB Vajpayee’s visit to China

  • 1988: Rajiv Gandhi’s visit to China

    • Agreed to develop and expand bilateral relations in all fields

    • Establish a Joint Working Group on Boundary and Joint Economic Group

  • Mid-1990s: relations started improving

  • 1992: President E Venkararaman visited China. This was the first Head of State level visit from India to China

  • 1996: Pres Jaing Zemin’s visit to India

  • 2003: Declaration on Principles for Relations and Comprehensive Cooperation signed

    • First comprehensive document on development of bilateral relations signed at the highest level between India and China

  • 2008: ‘A Shared Vision for the 21st century of the Republic of India and the PRC’

  • 2011: Year of India-China exchange

Perception of Each Other

Table 1

Perception of Each Other
Perception of each other

India’s perception of China

China’s perception of India

A very important nation in South Asia

Population next only to China

Economy growing at a fast pace. Security forces mobilizing. Nuclear power.

Major Outstanding Issues

Table 2

Major Outstanding Issues
Major Outstanding Issues


India’s Concern

China’s concern


Visa Policy

China giving stapled visa to residents of Kashmir


China accused of dumping goods in India.

India imposing ban on investment of certain Chinese companies


China building dams on the Brahmaputra river


India’s asylum to Dalai Lama


String of pearls.

Relations with Pak – China’s presence in PoK, China’s policy on J&K, nuclear relationship with Pakistan

India’s growing relationship with US

Defence Cooperation

Competition in South Asia

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