Human Physiology, Diseases, Diseases Caused by Protozoa and Fungi, Prevention and Control

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Human Physiology, Diseases


Mode of Spread

  • through intercourse with infected man

  • through indirect way like cloths, bedding.


  • Urine passes out with difficulty and there is an urge for frequent urination.

  • Infection may pass into foetus through placenta if the infected female is pregnant.

  • Eruptions appear on the skin. Other common diseases caused by bacteria are: Plague, Botulism, Pneumonia etc.

Diseases Caused by Protozoa

Amoebic Dysentery or Amoebiasis

Mode of Spread

  • Indirectly through flies which may pollute human food with cysts.

  • Through contaminated water, vegetables, fruits and other food stuffs.


  • Frequent loose stools or diarrhoea.

  • The blood-stained mucous passes along with stool.

Prevention and Control

  • Proper disposal of faecal matter of the patient.

  • Vegetables and fruits when used raw, should be thoroughly washed preferably with potassium permanganate.



Mode of Spread

By the bite of an infected female anopheles’ mosquito which acts as a carrier.


  • Sudden onset of fever and sensation of extreme cold.

  • Signs of shivering and intense headache also follow.

  • Fall in temperature is accompanied by profuse sweating.

  • The symptoms are repeated after every fixed hour depending upon the species of Plasmodium.

Prevention and Control

  • Destruction of breeding places (stagnated water) of mosquito by spreading an oil film on the water.

  • Use of mosquito nets.

  • Use of mosquito repellents like odomos.

  • Spraying of D.D.T. or Malathion in residential areas and other places.

  • Use of various drugs like Quinine, Atebrine, and Isopentane-quine is quite effective in control of malaria.

  • By fumigation i.e., certain chemicals are burnt so as to produce fumes that either kill mosquitoes or drive them away from their dwelling places.

Diseases Caused by Fungi


Mode of Spread

Ringworm of foot spreads on the skin peripherally and heals centrally and the pathogen gains entry through foot if the person moves bare-footed.


  • The early lesion which appears on body is ring like-with a scaly border.

  • in case if the ringworm appears on nail, the free edges of nails become grey or brown, rough, dull and sometimes nails are shed.

Prevention and Control

  • Personal hygiene is the best method of prevention of disease.

  • The infected body parts should be washed with dilute potassium permanganate and kept clean.

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