Foreign Invasions, Rajputs, Mohammad of Ghori and Delhi Sultanate

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Foreign Invasions

Mahmud of Ghazni

  • Hindushahi ruler Jayapala invaded Ghazni with help the son of a former Ghazni governor. He was however defeated.

  • In retaliation, Mahmud Ghazni (998-1030 AD) made 17 raids on India

  • 1001 AD: Mahmud defeated Jayapala and took him prisoner but released. He committed suicide.

  • 1008-09: Battle between Mahmud and Anandpala (Jayapala’s son). Anandapala defeated.

  • Reason for subsequent raids: to get funds to continue his struggle in Central Asia

  • Important raids

    • 1018: Kanauj

    • 1025: Somnath

  • Seljuk empire came into being after Mahmud.


Major States

  • Gahadavalas – Kanauj

  • Paramara – Malwa [Ujjain. Dhara]

  • Chauhans – Ajmer

  • Kalachuris – Jabalpur

  • Chandella – Bundelkhand

  • Chalukya – Gujarat

  • Tomars – Delhi

Nagara Architecture of Temples

  • Vastupala : Chalukyan minister-built Jain Temples at Mt Abu

  • Ujjain and Dhara: Sanskrit learning

  • Hemachandra: Jain scholar wrote in Sanskrit and Apabhramsha

  • Revival of Sanskrit: used by higher classes again

Mohammad of Ghori

  • Shahabuddin Muhammad (aka Muizzuddin Muhammad)

  • 1191: First battle of Tarain – Ghazni defeated

  • 1192: Second battle of Tarain – Prithviraj defeated.

  • Mohammad left: appointed Qutub-i-din Aibek

  • 1194: Battle of Chandawar: Muhammad Ghori vs Jaichandra of Kanauj. Jaichander lost.

  • Battles of Tarain and Chandawar laid the foundations of the Turkish rule in India.

  • Bakhtiyar Khilji: Muhammad’s Governor of Bengal

Delhi Sultanate


Delhi Sultanate

Delhi Sultanate

Slave Dyansty

After death of Muhammad Ghori

  • Yalduz succeeded him at Ghori

  • Qutubbdin Aibek succeeded him at Ghazni (1206-1210)

Slave Dyansty

Slave Dyansty


  • died after falling from his horse while playing polo

  • two slaves: Iltutmish (son-in-law) and Qubacha

Iltutmish (1210-36)

  • Real consolidator of Turkish conquests in India

  • Aibak’s slave Qubacha declared independence of Multan

  • Ousted Qubacha from Multan and Uchch

Razia (1236-39)

  • Defeated her wazir Nizam ul Mulk Junaidi

  • Salve: Yakut Khan

Balban (1265-86)

  • Aka Ulugh Khan

  • Father in law of the sultan Nasiruddin Mahmud (1246-1266)

  • Authoritarian and despot.

  • Administered justice with impartiality

  • Started sijada and paibos (prostration and kissing monarch’s feet)

  • Bughra Khan was his son who preferred to rule over Bengal

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