Khalji and Tughlaq Dynasty, Mohammad Bin T and Firuz Tughlaq

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Khalji Dyansty (1290-1320)

Khalji Dyansty

Khalji Dyansty

Jalaluddin Khalji (1290-96)

  • Mitigated the harsh aspects of Balban’s rule

  • Said that state should be based on the support of the ruled. Hence cannot be an Islamic state.

Alauddin Khilji (1296-1316)

  • Revered the liberal policies of Jalaluddin towards Hindus

  • Malik Kafur – general, led campaigns in South India

  • Conquered Gujarat, Rajasthan and Deccan

  • Amir Khusrau was his contemporary

Alauddin Carried Out Numerous Market Reforms

  • Fixed the prices of all commodities

  • Setup three markets in Delhi: for food grains, costly cloth, horses

  • Each market controlled by an officer called shahna

  • Revenue from Doab region to be paid directly to the state

  • First sultan to pay soldiers in cash

Military Reforms of Alauddin

  • Regular muster of the armed forces

  • Branding of horses (dagh)

  • Descriptive role of soldiers

Tughlaq Dynasty (1320 – 1412)

Tughlaq Dynasty

Tughlaq Dynasty

Mohammad Bin T (1324-51)


  • Giasuddin T died after the wooden platform broke

  • Transfer of capital: Delhi to Deogir (Daulatabad)

Token Currency

  • Khurasan project – to invade Af-Iran

  • Qarachil expedition – Kumaon hills to counter Chinese incursion

  • Famine – he left Delhi and lived in a camp called Swargadwari on banks of Ganges near Kanauj

  • Diwan-i-amir-ikohi department

  • Rebellions during the later part

  • Built road from Peshawar to Sonargaon and also to Daulatabad

Firuz Tughlaq (1351-88)

  • MBT’s rule had left the army and nobles discontented

  • FT adopted policies to appease them

  • Offices and iqta were made hereditary

Period of Peace

  • Extended the principle of heredity to army as well

  • Imposed jizyah: first ruler to do so

  • Took steps to translate Hindu religious works to Persian

Humanitarian Measures

  • Set up Public Works department. Canals

  • Built towns: Hissar and Firuzabad

  • Set up a separate department of slaves.

  • After Firuz’s death, the empire shrunk to just Delhi (a popular with reference)

  • 1398: Timur’s invasion

Sayyid Dyansty (1414-1451)

Lodi Dynasty (1451-1526)

Bahlol Lodi – Sikandar Lodi – Ibrahim Lodi

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