Cartography – Maps & Scale YouTube Lecture Handout

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Watch Video Lecture on YouTube: Cartography – Maps & Scale YouTube Lecture Handout

Cartography – Maps & Scale YouTube Lecture Handout

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  • Data and its types

  • Map and Scale

  • Analyzing Maps

To view sample questions and notes visit

Types of Data

Types of Data In Image

Types of Data in Image

Idiographic vs. Nomothetic

Idiographic vs. Nomothetic Image

Idiographic vs. Nomothetic Image


  • Map is graphical representation of real world.

  • Art of map making = Cartography

  • Maps can be:

    • Reference or Base Maps: Show natural and human-made objects from geographical environment with an emphasis on location, atlas or topographic maps

    • Thematic Maps: Geographical distribution of one phenomenon or spatial associations that occur between a number of phenomena

      • Isopleth maps - Isolines connect points of equal magnitude.

      • Choropleth map - tonal shadings are graduated to represent areal variations in number or density within a region, usually a formal region.

Topographic Map

Topographic Map Image

Topographic Map Image

Thematic Maps

  • Quantitative:

    • Choropleth: Color gradient

    • Chorochromatic: Various Color

    • Choroschematic: Symbols

    • Isopleth: Lines

    • Proportional Symbols: Size of symbols

    • Dot Density Maps: Population

  • Qualitative

Why We Need Maps?

  • To represent a larger area than we can see

  • To show a phenomenon or process that is not visible by eyes

  • To present information concisely

  • To show spatial relationships

How to Prepare Maps?

  • By actual survey

  • By photographs

  • By free sketches

  • By Computer Maps

Elements of Scale Map

  • Symbols and a legend

  • Scale

  • Direction (indicated by the north arrow)

  • Map grid or coordinate system

  • About the map (date created, title, author, source information)

Characteristics of Map

Characteristics of Map Image

Characteristics of Map Image

Reading Map is Indeed an Art!

  • Maps are selective views of reality

  • Size of the map relative to reality (scale)

  • What’s on the map (symbolization)

  • Shape of the map (projection)


  • Scale is about distance.

  • How long?

  • How far?

  • How wide?

  • How far on the map and how far on the ground?

Map Scale

  • Representative Fraction: Is a ratio like 1:1000

  • Verbal Statement: 1:1,000,000 verbally is "1 centimeter on the map equals 10 kilometers on the Earth's surface"

  • Graphic Scale

Map Scale Image

Map Scale Image

1:25,000 Scale

  • 1 centimetre (cm) on map = 25,000 cm on the ground

  • 1 cm on the map = 250 metres (m) on the ground

  • 4 cm on the map = 1 kilometre (km) on the ground

Analyzing Map Scale

Analyzing Map Scale Image

Analyzing Map Scale Image

Types of Scale: Comparative Scale

Types of Scale Comparative Scale Image

Types of Scale Comparative Scale Image

Diagonal Scale

Diagonal Scale Image

Diagonal Scale Image

Vernier Scale

Vernier Scale Image

Vernier Scale Image

Time Scale

Time Scale Image

Time Scale Image

Reduction & Enlaargement

  • After reducing a map from 1:10,000 to 1:50,000 scale, the new map is, the original line or scale & times the area.

  • After enlarging a map from 1: 100,000 to 1: 20,000 scale, the new map is times the original line or scale & times the area of the original scale.

  • If a map with scale 1: 100,000 is enlarged by 10 times the new scale can be calculated as follows. Assume that the new scale is , then, or , so & enlarged scale is .

Reduction/Enlargement by RF

  • When the map is enlarged the RF is decreased. E.g., if the original map with scale 10 cm = 5 km, is enlarged 4 times, the new RF will be 1:12500

Maps Based on Scale

  • Cadastral or Revenue Maps: Large scale 16-20 inches to 1 mile

  • Topographical Maps: Single purpose, 1 in = 1 mile

  • Wall Maps: Depict Large Area 1 in = 4 miles

  • Atlas Maps: Small-scale chorographical, 1:2000000

Map Symbols

  • Symbols are a code instead of text

  • Symbols can be

    • Point: Each symbol count as one occurrence

      • Qualitative: Explains location

      • Quantitative: Shows distribution

    • Line: One-dimensional for borders, roads etc.

    • Area: two-dimensional like garden, plot etc.

  • Consider shape, size, orientation, pattern, color, value

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