Andhra Pradesh PSC: World Economic

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Agriculture: Agricultural Typology

  • Nomadic Simplest form of pastoralism. Herds graze on natural vegetation. Pastoral nomads depend primarily on animals rather than crops for survival. Seasonal pattern of movement of Nomads along with their herds between mountains and lowland pastures is known as Transhumance.

    • Fulani -W. Africa

    • Masai -East Africa (Tanzania and Kenya)

    • Nuba - Ethiopia

    • Tuareg - Sahara

    • Hottentots - Botswana

    • Bedoins - Saudi Arabia

    • Khirghiz, Kazakhs and Kalmuk - Central Asia

    • Yakuts, Samoyeds, Koriaks and Lapps - Scandinavia

  • Simple Subsistence Farming

    • Better known as Shifting cultivation

    • Slash and burn agriculture A plot of forest is set on fire and cleared and the cultivation is carried for sometime. When land gets exhausted, they shift to other areas (Field rotation) It is known by different names in different regions.

    • Milpa - Central America

    • Roca - Brazil

    • Ladang - Malaysia

    • Humah - Indonesia

    • Kaingin - Philippines

    • Taungya - Burma

    • Chena - Sri Lanka

    • Jhum or Bewar- India.

  • Sedentary Subsistence Agriculture In Tropical lowlands

    • Crop rotation along with field rotation

    • Subsistence farming along with cultivation of cash crops and collection and sale of forest products

    • Prevalent in South East Asia and West Africa

    • Intensive Subsistence Agriculture (Oriental Agriculture)

    • Marked by intense rice cultivation

    • Usually in Monsoon lands East Asia, South Asia and S. E. Asia.

  • Intensive cultivation on wet lowlands and terraced uplands supports dense population This agricultural system is of two types

    • Dominated by wet paddy

    • That without paddy (dominated by sorghum, sugarcane, maize etc.).

  • Subsistence crop and livestock farming: Farmers produce crops and raise livestock mainly for their own subsistence and sell nothing to the local market Turkey, Iran, Iraq, southern Mexico etc.

  • Mediterranean Agriculture: In bordering areas of Mediterranean sea, California, Central Chile, S.W. Africa, and S. Australia. It includes cultivation of cereals and vegetables with the aid of seasonal precipitation along with plantation crops of olives, figs, dates and grapes. Farming is both subsistence and commercial and also involves livestock farming (small animals which graze on highlands). Olives and grapes are most important commercial crops. It is a major wine producing area.

  • Livestock Ranching

    • Characterized by commercial grazing of livestock over an extensive area.

    • Ranches have a continuous vegetative cover (either native grasses or legumes such as Lucerne, cloves and alfalfa).

    • They are known by different names in different areas: Llanos (Venezuela) Sertao (Brazil) Pampas (Uruguay and Argentina) Patagonia (Argentina) Karroo of South Africa

    • Semiarid areas of Australia and New Zealand. In Europe ranching is not common, but some ranches are found in Spain and Portugal.

  • Extensive Commercial Grain Farming

    • Wheat cultivating regions of the world

    • It is a wheat monoculture region (spring and winter)

    • Highly mechanized cultivation

    • Extensive farming means large size of holdings, greater use of machinery and little labour employment. Steppes (Eurasia) Prairies (N. America) Pampas (Argentina) Veld (S. Africa) Cantebury Plains (New Zealand) Pustaz (Hungary) Downs (Australia)

  • Mixed Farming (Commercial liverstock and crop farming)

    • Integration of crops and liverstocks.

    • Extensive use of agricultural inputs (fertilizers, manures, techniques etc.)

    • Wide varriety of crops are grown.

    • In Europe, N. America (to the immediate west of Appalachians), South Africa, North East Argentina, S. E. Australia and New Zealand.

  • Commercial Dairy Farming

    • Prevalent on permanent pastures of temperate regions.

    • It is characterised by high productivity, commercialization, and high labour intensity.

    • N E United States, NW Europe, Australia, New Zealand (North Island), parts of Argentina, Middle Chile, S. Africa, Russia and Japan.

  • Market gardening or Truck farming

    • Fruit and vegetable farming in suburban areas.

    • Though farming is capital Intensive and scientifically managed, it is done on small and intensive scale

    • Prevalent in USA and North Western Europe

  • Collective Farming

    • Collective farms in Russia are known as Kolkhuzi and state farms as Sovkhozi.

    • In China there are state farms which are known as Communes.

    • Israeli collective farms are known as Kibbutzim.

    • This type of farming is still managed and aims at egalitarian agricultural social system.

  • Plantation Agriculture

    • Cash crops are produced in a highly capitalised and centralized cultivation system on large scale for exports.

    • It is prevalent in tropical areas especially in equatorial rain forests and monsoon lands

    • Important plantation crops cotton, sugarcane, coffee, rubber and tobacco.

    • Plantation agriculture is a colonial legacy in the third world countries.

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