Andhra Pradesh PSC: Hues Of Indian Human Geography geography notes on racial groups in India

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3 Perspectives in Human Geography

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The diversity that is found in India is hard to find anywhere else in this world. Whether it is physiograpic divisions or the different aspects of India's population, India since time immemorial has been successful in evolving a unique distinction of its own on the world map. Here we have attempted to facilitate you with the colourful picture of India.

Racial Groups of India

1. Negroids: Structure: Negro race is characterised by:

  1. Short stature,

  2. dark, brown skin,

  3. wooly hair,

  4. Bulbous head,

  5. broad flat nose,

  6. protrusion of jaw. Today, they are found in Andaman Islands and also at Urali region of Nilgiris, Khadurs of Kochi, and Pulyans of Palni Hills. The Angami Nagas of north coast and Badgis of Rajmahal are very similar to Negros. They were probably the earliest arrivals into India.

2.Proto Australoids: They came after Negroids. Structure:

  1. black skin colour

  2. wavy to curly hair,

  3. broad and flat nose,

  4. fleshy and everted lips,

  5. proganthous jaws. They are mostly found in the hilly and forested tracts of central and southern India and tribal groups in India. Important tribes are: Veddhas, Malveddhas, Irulas, Santhal, Kol, Bhil, Kurumba, Munda, Kherwar, Malpahari, Chenchus, Malayan etc. The main difference between Proto Australoids and Negroids is that the latter don't have wavy hair.

3. Mongoloids: China and Mongolia is considered as their original homeland. Structure:

  1. broad head,

  2. high cheek bones,

  3. long flat nose with little or no hair on the body,

  4. slanting eyes.

  5. In India, Mongoloids can be divided into two sub groups:

i) Paleo Mongoloids: These are further divided into

  1. broad headed and

  2. long headed.

  3. They are found in Assam Himalayas and Myanmar border.

ii) Tibetan Mongoloids: Found in Sikkim, Bhutan and Trans Himalayan regions. The tribes of Mongoloid race are: Garo, Khasi, Lepchas, Jaintias, Chakmas, Daffla.

4. Mediterraneans: Structure:

  1. a)dark skinned

  2. long hair

  3. medium structured

  4. more body hair

  5. low skull and long chin. They were probably the chief architects of Indus valley civilisation. Dravidians are Mediterranean

5.Brachycephals: They are broad headed They are of three types

  1. Alpinoids: are found in Baluchistan, Sindh, Kathiawar, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu,

  2. Dinarics: in Ganga valley,

  3. Armenoids: are found in Chitral, Gilgit, Kashmir and Nepal. In India Coorg, Parsis and Kayasthas of Bengal are Brachycephals.

6.Nordics: They came latest and spoke Aryan language.

Scheduled Tribes of India

  • Angamis -Nagaland

  • Ao - Nagaland

  • Apatani-Arunachal Pradesh

  • Badagas -Niligiris (T.N)

  • Baiga - Madhya Pradesh

  • Bakkarwals- J & K

  • Bhils - M. P and Rajasthan

  • Bhotias- Uttranchal

  • Bhuia- M. P

  • Birhars - Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand and Orissa

  • Chenchus-Andhra Pradesh

  • Gaddis - Himachal Pradesh

  • Garo - Meghalaya

  • Gonds - M. P

  • Gujjars - J&K, H. P

  • Irula - Tamil Nadu

  • Jaintias - Meghalaya and Assam

  • Jarawas- Andaman and Nicobar Is,

  • Kanikar- Tamil Nadu

  • Katkari- M. P

  • Kharia- M. P

  • Khasa -Uttaranchal

  • Khasis -Meghalaya

  • Khonds -Orissa

  • Kol -M. P, Maharashtra

  • Kolam- Andhra Pradesh

  • Kolas -Tamil Nadu

  • Kuki- Manipur

  • Lahaulas- Himachal Pradesh

  • Lepchas- Sikkim

  • Lushai -Mizoram

  • Murias- M. P and Chhattisgarh

  • Mikirs - Assam

  • Moplas- Kerala

  • Munda -Jharkhand, W. Bengal

  • Naga- Nagaland

  • Oraon- Jharkhand

  • Onge- Andaman and Nicobar Is.

  • Sabra- M.P

  • Santhal -Jharkhand

  • Sema- Nagaland

  • Sentinelese- Andman and Nicobar Is.

  • Shompens-Andman and Nicobar Is.

  • Todas - Tamil Nadu

  • Uralis - Kerala

  • Varlis - Maharashtra

  • Yurva - Tamil Nadu

Scheduled Castes

In 1991 there were 138 million persons constituting 16.48% of India's total population under the category of scheduled castes.

Top 5 states with highest population of Scheduled castes (% of India's total SCs population)

  • Uttar Pradesh ...21.18

  • West Bengal ...11.60

  • Bihar ...9.09

  • Tamil Nadu ...7.75

  • Andhra Pradesh ...7.65

Territories of Lakshdweep and Andaman and Nicobar Islands do not have Scheduled Castes population.

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