Andhra Pradesh PSC: Indian Geography coal

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Impact of Coal: Environment & Geography

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  • Amounts to 60% of total electricity generated.

  • 65% of the commercial needs of energy.

  • Raniganj coal field is the oldest in India (1814).

  • Indian coalfield belongs to two geological era Gondwana and tertiary. Gondwana category accounts for 99.5 % of the total reserve.

  • Gondwana category is inferior to the tertiary coal.

  • Tertiary coalfield is found in the Northeast and J&K.

  • Jharia largest in India.

  • Per capita production of Coal180 kg.

  • Important coalfields Jharkhand: Jharia, Bokaro, Giridih, Karanpura, Ramgarh, Auranga, Hutar, Daltonganj, Deogarh and Rajmahal. W.Bengal: Raniganj, Barjora and Darjeeling. Andhra Pradesh: Godavari valley (Singareni coalfields) MP/ Chhattisgarh: Singrauli, Korba, Chirmiri, PenchKanha Tawa valley, Hasdo Arand, Jhilmili and Mohpani etc. Maharashtra: Chanda, Kamte, Umrer and Bander. Orissa Talcher and IB river

  • Coal reserve (statewise) Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh, W. Bengal, Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, UP, Meghalaya, Assam, Arunachal Pradesh and Nagaland.

  • Largest Mine reserves Jharia, Raniganj, Godavari valley.North Karanpura, Singrauli and Talcher.

  • Statewise production MP/ Chhattisgarh, Bihar, Orissa, Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, W. Bengal, and Uttar Pradesh.

  • Utilisation of coal in various industries (in sequence): Power, Steel, Cement, Fertilizer, Chemical and Paper.

  • In order to increase the availability of indegenous coking coal for steel plants , new coal washeries are being set up and capacities of existing coal beneficiation plants are being increased.

  • There are around eighteen coal washeries in the country .Seven washeries (Dugda, Bhojudih, Patherdih, Lodna, Sudamdih and Munidih) produce high grade coking coal. Similarly Kargali, Kathera, Sawang, Gidi, Barora and Nandan washeries manufacture medium grade coking coal. Durgapur I washery is under W.Bengal government and those of Jamdoba and W. Bokaro is under Tata Iron and Steel Co., that of Nawrozabad under Western coalfield limited and Lodna and Durgapur II under the Bharat Coking Coal Ltd.

  • Problems of coal mining: poor quality coal uneven distribution transport bottleneck obsolete methods of mining, power shortage recession in coal mining environmental pollution wastage of coal.


  • Found in Nilgiri hills, Jhelum and Ganga delta in W. Bengal.

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