Andhra Pradesh PSC geography notes on distribution of jute and woolen textiles in India

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Jute Industry

  • It is second most important after cotton

  • First Jute Mill in 1855 in Rishra.

  • In 1859, first power loom was started. Till 1884, they rose to 24, further 76 in 191819 and 112 in 1947.

  • In partition, 81% of jute output went to East Pakistan

  • Today, there are 73 mills in India, out of which 85% are between Naihati and Calcutta Distribution:

  • First in W. Bengal; out of 73, 56 mills are in W.Bengal, produces 14%.

  • Second is Andhra Pradesh10% of total production.

  • In W. Bengal, centres are Balli, Rishra, Serampore, Budge Budge, Shamnagar, Saikia, Bansberia, Uluberia, Titagarh, Agrapora, Birlapure.

  • The greatest importer from India is USA, Canada, Australia, Russia, Czech. Republic and UK

  • 60% of the total production was exported, now, it is only 20%.

  • Mills in Andhra Pradesh are at Guntur, Ongole, Eluru, Vishakhapatnam, Nellimorala (near Ongole), Chellivelsa and Eburu.

  • Mills in U.P are at Kanpur and Gorakhpur

  • Mills in Bihar are in Purnea, Katihar,Samastipur, Gaya.

  • In M P, Raigarh; in Orissa Cuttak.

Causes of Mills in Bengal (In Hierarchy)

  1. The Ganga Bhrahmaputra delta grows about 90% of India's jute and therefore provides raw material to jute mills.

  2. Coal is easily obtained from Raniganj.

  3. Abundant water is available for processing, washing and dyeing of jute.

  4. Humid climate is very convenient for spinning and weaving.

  5. Calcutta is a big city of import and export.

  6. Population is high so labour is cheap.

Problems of Jute Mills

The overall demand for jute product is decreasing in international market.

The input coast for jute product in India is quite high. Basically jute is export oriented industry, in the international market they have developed substitute of jute.

Woolen Textile

  • First woolen modern industry is Lal imli, near Kanpur in 1876.

  • Dhariwal in Punjab in 1881, Mumbai in 1882 and Bangalore in 1886.

  • Today there are 621 big and small mills in India.

  • Woolen Carpets: India has 240 units; 90% ofthe production is exported to USA, Britain, Canada and Australia.

  • Hosiery: Ludhiana is the largest.


  1. Punjab has 297 mills, maximum in Dhariwal, other centres are Amritsar, Ludhiana and Kharar.

  2. Causes: hydroelectricity Bhakara Nangal dam; water from Kashmir and Kumoun region.

  3. Maharashtra has 31 mills largely in Mumbai.

  4. U P has 37 mills mainly at Kanpur (birth place of woolen industry), Shajahnpur, Mirzapur, Varanasi, Agra

  5. Gujarat has 10 mills: important centers are Jamnagar, Ahmadabad and Vadodara.

  6. Harayana: 160 small mills in Panipat, Gurgaon, Faridabad and Bahadurgarh.

  7. Rajasthan: 72 small mills at Bikaner, Alwar, Bhilwara, Sikar, Nagaur, Pushkar and Ajmer.

  8. Karnataka: mills at Bangalore, Bellary.

  9. West Bemgal: at Howrah and Hooghly

Problems of Woolen Textiles

1.Shortage of raw wool

  1. productivity of Indian sheep is very low: 0.86 kg/annum, whereas in Australia 4.08 kg/ annum.

  2. (b)the quality of wool is not good.

2. lack of market; lack of modern equipments.

3. fluctuating export market.

Silk Textile

There are 4 variations of silk: mulberry, tassar, muga and irie.


  1. 1.Karnataka: 70% of mulberry silk of the country; impotant centres are Mysore, Banglore, Kolar, Mandya, Tumkur, Belgaun and Kodagu.

  2. 2.West Bengal: 13% of total silk mainly mulberry; important centres are Murshidabad, Bankura, 24 Parganas and Bir Bhum.

  3. J&K: 10% at Anantnag, Baramullah, Jammu and Udhampur.

  4. 4.Bihar/Jharkhand: 8% of total silk; largest producer of tassar silk; important centres are at Patna, Gaya, Palamu, Hazaribagh, Bhagalpur and Ranchi.

  5. M P/Chhattisgarh: 2.5% of total silk; at Balaghat, Bastar, Bilaspur and Sarguja.

  6. U P : below 2% ; Mirzapur, Pratapgarh, Shajahanpur.

  7. Punjab: Amritsar, Ludhiana, Jullandhar, Gurdaspur and Hoshiarpur.

  8. 8.Tamil Nadu: Coimbatore, Tiruchurapalli, Dharampur, Nilgiri, Salem, Tanjore, Tirunelveli.

  9. Assam: Golpara, Kamrup and Nangaon.

  10. Maharashtra: Pune, Nagpur, Sangli.Chandrapur and Sholapur.

  11. Exports to USA, Russia and Saudi Arabia.

Synthetic Fibre

  • Travancore Rayons ltd. is at Raipuram, Kerala in 1950.

  • National Rayon company is at Mumbai.

  • Sirsilk Ltd. Hyderabad.

  • There are 6 types of Synthetic fibres

Types of Rayon

  • Rayon: centres at Kagajnagar (A P), Junagarh (Gujarat), Raipuram (Kerala), Udhana (Gujarat), Birlagram (H.P.), Nagada (M.P), Kota (Rajasthan), Kalyan, Pimpri, Pune, Goregaun (Maharashtra), Mettupalayam (T N), Kanpur (U.P), Triveni (W.B)

  • Nylon Filament Yarn Unit: at Kota, Pimpri, Pune, Bhosari, Mumbai, Nagpur, Modinagar, Vadodara, Chennai, Banglore, Barauni, Triuvananthpuram, Kanpur, Ujjain and Calcutta.

  • Nylon Stable Fibre: at Kota and Mumbai.

  • Nylon Tyre Cord Unit: at Kota, Mumbai, Chennai, Kalyan, Kanpur, Goregaon, New Delhi, Udhna

  • Polyster Staple Fibre: Thane, Ahmedabad, Vadodra,, Gaziabad, Mandi, Kota.

  • Polyster filament YarnUnit: Mumbai, Kota, Pimpri, Pune, Modinagar, Ujjain, Udhna and Vadodara.

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