15th Century Religion

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Shankaracharva

  • His philosophy is called Advaita Vedanta, Kevala Advaita, and Uttara Mimamsa

  • wrote commentaries on Upanishads, Brahmasutra and Bhagawat Gita

  • His Guru was Govinda Yogi,

  • Founded Mathas at four different directions:

    • Dwarka: West,

    • Puri: East,

    • Sringeri: South,

    • Badrinath: North

  • Panchyatana (Five Gods)

  • Kumarallia and Sankara are Smartas (traditionalist)

  • Kumarallia elucidated the philosphy of ritualism (Mimamsa)

Ramanujacharva: Visistadvaita

  • Related to Srivishnava Sect and Sri Sampradaya Sect

  • Followers called Vedanta Desika

  • He wrote Satadusani against Advaita

  • Lived in Kanchipuram and his guru was Yadava Prakash

  • In 1096, he went in the darbar of Vishnuvardhana and converted him into Vaishnava

  • Also wrote commentary on Badrayana's Brahmasutra

Madhavacharya: Dvaita School (Dualism)

  • Born in Beli,

  • He founded 8 Monasteries;

  • He wrote a book called Bharatatparinirnaya

  • He was founder of Brahmana sampradaya

Srikantacharva: Sivadvaita

  • Wrote commentary Brahm sutra, emphsised Saiva Agmas and Upanishad

  • Propounded that Siva endowed with Sakti is an ultimate Brahmana

  • Jivas are infinite in number

Nimbakacharya: Dvaitadvaita

  • He founded Sankadi Sampradaya

  • Wrote a book called Vedantaparijatasurabha, which is a commentary on Brahma sutra

  • Raghavaballavaha was a branch of it

  • Wrote Hita Harivamsa

  • He also wrote a book called Siddhantaratna, which is also known as Dasaloki.

Vallabhacharya: Suddhadvaita

  • He was son of Laksmana Bhatt, and belonged to Kanakarva, and lived for sometime in Vrindavana and worshipper have Krishna and therefore, he is known as Srinatha.

  • He was a Saguna;

  • Wrote Sachitanand

  • Established Srinath Temple

  • Established Vaisnava School? His philosophy is known as Pustimarga His disciple and son Vittalnath found the Rudrasampradaya.

Chaitnaya: Achchintya

Vedovedavada

  • His original name was Visambhar Misra; nick name Nimai

  • Birth place: Navadvipa (1485-1538); Died in Puri

  • His Sampradaya was called Gauriya Sampradaya.

  • His Guru was Kesava Bharati.

  • Lived during the reign of Gajapati Raja Prataprudra of Orissa.

  • Jiva Goswami has written a book about him called Satya Sandharva.

Maharashtra: Jnaneshvara: (? -1296)

  • He has written a commentary called Bhavarthadipika, which is also called Jnanesvari

  • His best compilation is Amrita anubhava

  • During his time Vithoba became important, which is situated near Pandharpur.

Guru Namadeva: (1270-1350)

  • He was influenced by Islam;

  • By caste, he was Tailor; he was follower of Rama

  • Visoba Keeker was his guru.

Ekanath: (1533-1599)

  • Brahman; his Guru was Janardhan Swami (1504-1575).

  • Ramayana: produced first reliable edition of the Nameswari, and also written commentary on Jnaneswari

  • Bhavartha Ramayana

  • 11th Chapter of Bhagvata is known as Eknathi Bhagawata. He has written:

  • Bhavaratha Ramayana

  • Rukmini Svayamvara

  • Composed hundreds of Abhangas, Gaulans, Bharudas

  • Commentaries on Chatuhsloki Bhagavata, Svatmasukha and Chiranji-vapada and official edition of Jnaneswari.

  • He is famous for his Abhangas.

  • According to the tradition, a group of five writers formed the Eknatha Panchaka: Eknatha, Rama Janardhana, Jani Janardhana, Vitha Renukanandana and Dasopantha.

Tukarama: (1598-1650)

  • Greatest Bhakti poet

  • Varkari Sect

  • Wrote Abhangas and was very famous for that.

  • Contemporary of Shivaji

  • Born in Kunnavi

Smarat Ramadasa (1608-1682)

  • A born Saint; performed severe penance for 12 years and travelled for another 12 years.

  • Started the cult of Dhanurdari Rama and of Balabhima; established mathas.

  • He has written:

  • Anandavana Bhuvana: about ideal state;

  • Janasvabhava Gosavi:

  • Asmani Sultani;

  • Parachakra-Nirupana;

  • Dasabodha;

  • Karunashatke;

  • Manache Sloka;

  • Ramavaradayani

Ramananda: (1300 -1411)

  • He was born at Prayaga, Allahabad and have studied the Visishtadvaita system of Ramanuja at Varanasi at the feet of a teacher Ragha-vananda

  • He had 12 disciples: called Avadutha, i.e, free from all barriers, named

  • Asananda

  • Surasurananda

  • Sukhnanda

  • Paramananda

  • Mahananda

  • Pipa (a rajput ruling chief)

  • Kabir (weaver)

  • Bhavananda

  • Sena (Barber)

  • Dhanna (Jat)

  • Sri Ananda

  • Ravidasa (cobbler)

  • Use of vernacular language instead of Sanskrit;

  • Introduced cult of Rama and Sita in the place of Krishna and Radha

Kabir - (1440 -1518)

  • Initially disciple of Ramanada later developed his own sect.

  • A Nirguna, lived during the reign of Sikander Lodhi; lived in Varanasi

  • Primarily a Reformer and iconoclast.

  • Kabirpanthis and other sects based on his teachings -shunned idolatry, open to Hindus and Muslims; stressed the value of Guruand restricted themselves to the vernacular.

  • Important works:

  • Bijaka: seed book, most sacred; Bijaka was dictated by Kabir and complied by his disciple hagawanadasa; his dohas are incorporated in Adi-Grantha.

  • Mangala;

  • Sabada;

  • Rekhtal;

  • Basant;

  • Holi;

  • Sakhi

  • He was against Sakta

  • Tomb at Mahar (Gorakhpur), Uttar Pradesh

Goswami Tulsidas:-(1532-1623)

  • Born in Gonda District in Eastern U.P

  • Traditionally 6 minor and 6 major works ascribed to him. Of the major works-Ramacharitamanas (written in 1574, written in Awadhi language); Vinaya Pattrika, Kavitavali are prominent.

  • Others are: Ramayana Bairaga, Janaki Mangal, Geetawali and Dohawali.

Surdas- (1483-1563)

  • One of the 8 main disciples of Vallabha.

  • Born in a Brahman family and musician attached to temples at Agra and Mathura.

  • Surawali

  • Sahitya Hahiri

Mira Bai: (1503-1573)

  • Padavali

  • Daughter of Ratan Singh Rathore.

  • Married in Chittor

  • Bairam Deva- uncle

  • Written in Brajabhasa, Gujarati, Rajasthani

Dadu Dayal: (1544-1603)

  • Ahmedabad, settled at Naraina

  • Buddhanand (Hindu Tradition)

  • Buddhan (Muslim tradition)

  • The poems are known as

Bani Daranidasa : 1656

  • Disciple of Kabir Dasa

  • Formed Darnidasi branch of Kabir Panth in Chattisgarh region, M.P.

  • Satya Prakash

  • Prem Prakash

Tagjivandasa

  • BaraBanki (UP)

  • founder of Satnami Sect

  • His disciple Dulavi

Carandasa

  • Mewat Rajasthan

  • A Virguna Upasaka

  • Devotee of Sri Krishna of Vrindavana

  • Fine blend of Nirguna and Saguna

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