15th Century Religion Sufi Movement: Silsilla

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  • Shaikh Shibabuddin Suhrawardi: (1145-1234)

  • Founded the Silsilla and wrote a book called Awariful Maarif

  • The real founder of this silsilla was Bahauddin Zakariyya (1182-1262).

  • Born near Kot Karor, near Multan, who had a leading Khanqah at Multan; invited Iltutmish to attack Multan to defeat the ruler Qabacha, who conferred the title: Shaikh ul Islam (leader of Islamic community), main activity near Sind at Uchch.

  • Shaikh Raknuddin Fath (died 1334-35) highly respected by Alauddin Khalji and Mohammad Bin Tuglak. Property was essential.

  • Sayyid Jalaluddin Bukhari

  • Popularly known as Makhdum - i - Jahaniyan (Lord of the World's People) and also called Jahanghast (World Traveller)

  • Known for his Shab-i-barat ceremony Sayyid Muhammad

  • Known as Shah Mahjhan, he was conferred a title: Shah i Alam (King of the Universe)

  • Firdausiyya:

    • The outstanding Sufi of this Silsilla was Shaikh Sarfuddin Ahmed Yaha Munyari, lived during Mohhamad Bin Tugluk and Feroz Shah Tugluk.

    • He be- Leaved in Wahadat al Wujud. He died in 1381


  • Believes in pantheistic monism Wahadat- ul- Wujud, (Unity of Being)

  • Origin: Khwaja Chisti near Herat

Khwaja Main-Uddin Cristi -1141-1236

  • Born in Sistan; came to Lahore

  • Finally settled in Ajmer, 1206

  • Tomb built in Malwa, brought under state control during Akbar

Shaikh Hamiduddm Nagauri- 1192-1274

  • An ordinary Rajasthani cultivator, refused to take any financial help and gifts

  • Refrained from calling any Hindu a Kifir

Shaikh Fariduddin Mahmud

  • Mohammad Bin Tugluk married his daughter to his grandson

  • One of the Shaikh's disciple was Khwaja Ziauddin Nakshabandi.

  • Khwaja Outubuddin Bakhtivar Kaki (died: 12361)

  • No political activity and Delhi was his centre of activity

  • Popularized Sama

  • Iltutmish visited his place and built Qutub Minar in his name.

Baba Farriduddin Ganj I Shankar (Died 12651)

  • Khanqah at Ajodhan in the Punjab.

  • He built Jamat Khana

  • His verses are quoted in Adi Granth

Nizamuddin Auliya - 1287-1325

  • Known as Mahmud i illahi

  • Nizamiyah branch assumed All India status

  • Famous dictum "Delhi Doorashat";

Shaikh Nasiruddin Mahmud

  • Known as Chirag i Delhi; his teachings ate incorporated in Khayrul Majalis

  • Known as perfect siddha

  • He did not nominate any successor

Maulana Burhauddin Gharib

  • Forced by Mohammad Bin Tugluk to leave Delhi for Daulatabad, But the Chisti Silsilla was actually popularized by Muhammad bin Yusuf al Hnsavani.

  • Commonly known as Banda Nawaz or Gesu Daraz; first settled in Gujarat and later shifted to Gulbarga.

  • Earlier he was Wahadat al Wujud but later became Wahadat al Shudud; died in 1422.

  • In Bengal Chisttiya silsilla was founed by Shaikh Akhi Sirajuddin Usman, at Pandua, He appointed Shaikh Alaal Haqq as khalifa.

  • Akbar built Fatehpur Sikri to show his reverence to Shaikh Salim Chisti.

  • Only difference between Suhrawardi and Chisttiyya was that: the Suhrawardi didn't believe in poverty and Chisttiyya believed in it.


  • Turanis were main patrons; it was originally called Silsilah i khwajgan;

  • It was the only silsilla which did not practice Yoga.

  • Earliest reference has been found of Khwaja Bahauddin Muhammad Naqasbandh. Khwaja Ubaidullah Ahrar lived during Babar.

  • Then the most important Sufi was Khwaja Baqi Billah; died in 1603.

  • Shaikh Ahmad of Sarhind popularly known as Imam Rabbani and Mujaddid Alf Thani (Reformer of the second millennium). He opposed Pantheistic philosophy (Wahadat ul Wajud) and propouned Wahadat ul Shudud.

  • Other important Sufi saints were: Khwaja Masum, Khwaja Said helped Aurangzeb against Dara and regarded Aurangzeb as the last hope of the Muslims. At the end ofl679, Aurangzeb banned Mujaddid's principle.


  • Sayyid Muhammad of Jaunpur left an indelible mark on the Mahadawi; during the

  • reign of Sultan Mahmud Shah Sharqi.

  • They carried arms and forcibly stopped non-sharia practices.

  • He was succeeded by Sayyid Mahmud, and then Khwandamir.

  • Most important Mahdi was Shaikh Abdullaha Niyazi and his disciple Shaikh Alai. They lived during the reign of Islam Shah.

  • Islam Shah became worried about the conversion of Afghani soliders into Mahadawies. In 1550, Shaikh Alai was beaten to death at Makhdumul Mulk's order.


  • It was founded by Shah Abdullah, earned the name Shattar (Fast Runner);

  • converted Ghiyasuddin Shah of Bengal; opposed Shuhud; patronised by Humayuna.


  • They originated from the thought of Muhy iuddin Abdul Qadir Jilani;

  • Shaikh Abdul Qadir made Qaddiriyya order famous in Punjab and Sind.

  • Akbar favoured shaikh Musa; Musa was friend of Abul Fazl.

  • Shah Abdur Razzaq was a great teacher of Wahadat al Wujud.

  • He was criticised for his violation of Shariah and advocated Wahadat al Wujud.

  • Mian Mir became important after him. In 1620, Jahangir invited him to visit his camp in Kashmir. Mulla Shah was his famous disciple.

  • Mulla Shah: In 1639-40 both Prince Dara Shukoh and his sister Jahan Ara became his disciple.

  • Jahan Ara Begum, sometimes known as Begum Sahiba, wrote a biography on Mulla Shah called Sahibiya.


  • The principal centre was Kashmir.

  • It was introduced by Mir Sayyid Ah Hamadani

  • Sultan Sikander became follower of this sect; he was converted by Mir Muhammad.

  • Bayhaqi Sayyid converted Zain ul Abidin


  • It was first established in Sind; the Fatimid was Ismailli Shi'is and had introduced the hierarchical dais missionary system.

  • Shah Raziuddin converted Burhan Nizam Shah of Ahmadnagar.

  • The P.M of Golkunda, Mir Muhammad Mumin, established this sect in Hyderabad.

  • Mir Samsuddin Iraqi popularised in Kashmir.

  • During the reign of Akbar Hakim Fathullah Shirazi (Mathematician), Abdul Fath Gilani, Hakim Humam, Mulla Ahmad of Thatta was a historian and wrote large portion of the Tarikh a Alfi; Mulla Muhammad Yazdi.

  • The most learned Shi's of Akbar reign was Qazi Nurullah Shustri, wrote Ihqaqul Haqq.


  • The founder of the Hayadari Qalandars belonged to Turbat-i-Haydar near Mashhadinlran. They called themselves Sikh i muhr.

  • Shaikh Abu Bakr Tusi Hayadari settled on the banks of the Jamuna in Delhi and built a khanqah there.

  • Abu Ali Qalandar lived in Panipat.


  • Main Centre was Lucknow

  • Founder: Allauddin Ali bin Ahmad sabir, a disciple of baba Farid, lived in Kalyar

  • Abdul bin abdul Haq: lived in Jaunpur

  • Patronised by Sharqui dynasty

  • Shah Mahibullah lived in Allahabad

  • Shaikh Abdul Quddis: lived Saharanpur


  • Founded by Bayyazid Ansari, lived in jallandar

  • mainly confined in Kashmir and Kabul.

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