Indus Valley Civilization Ancient India: Aryans, Jainism, Buddhism

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∙ Discovered in 1921

∙ Belonged to the bronze age

∙ An area of about 1.3 m in sq km

∙ Existed between 3300-1600 BC in three phases: early, mature and late phases

∙ Sites

Table of Early, Mature and Late Phases
Table of Early, Mature and Late Phases

Early (pre-Harappan)

Mature (Harappan)

Late phase (post-urban)








Banawali (Hisar)

Sutkagendor (Pakistan)

Surkotada (Gujarat)

Dholavira (Kutch)



Rakhigarhi (Ghaggar)




Manda (Jammu), Chandigarh, Shangol (Punjab), Daulatpur, Mitthal (Haryana), Alamgirpur, Hulas (West UP)

Table of Remarkable Feature
Table of Remarkable Feature


Remarkable Feature

Sutkagendor – Surkotada

Marked by a citadel


Great Bath

Large granary

Impressive drainage system

Piece of woven cotton

Mother Goddess

Seal of pashu-pati


Grain and plough

∙ Town planning

∙ Grid system

∙ The Indus people were the earliest to produce cotton


∙ Male dominated

∙ Pastoral

∙ Horse was a significant animal

∙ Rig Veda – Consists of 10 mandalas (books): Book 1 and 10 are relatively new

∙ Earliest specimen of Indo-European language: 2200 BC inscription in Iran. Later in the Hittite inscriptions in Anatolia

∙ 1500 BC came to India

∙ Sindhu is the river par excellence for them

∙ Saraswati is the best of the rivers in Rig Veda

∙ Panchajana – five tribes into which Aryans were divided

∙ Used ploughshare

∙ Land did not form a well-established type of private property

∙ Metal working was known

∙ Rajan – king

∙ Samiti, sabha, vidatha, gana – tribal assembly


∙ 24 tirthankaras.

∙ First: Rishab Dev

∙ 23rd: Parshavnath

∙ Mahavir (599 BC – 527 BC) or (540 BC – 468 BC)

∙ In Kundagrama near Vaishali

∙ Father – Siddhartha (Jnatrika clan)

∙ Mother – Trishala (sister of Lichchhavi chief Chetaka)

∙ Died at Pavapuri near Rajgir

∙ Five doctrines: Do not – violence, steal, lie, acquire property and do observe brahmacharya

∙ Did not condemn the Varna system

∙ Triratna: right knowledge, right faith, right action

∙ Spread to Kalinga in first century BC. King Kharavela

∙ Used Prakrit language. Literature written in Ardhamagadhi

∙ Prepared the grammar of Apabhramsha

∙ Contributed to the growth of Kannada

Image of Jainism

Image of Jainism


∙ 563 – 483 BC – Lumbini, Kapilavastu, Nepal. Shakya family.

∙ Suddhodan and Mahamaya

∙ Death: Kushinagar (Kasia in Deoria Distt of UP)

∙ Eight-fold path (for end of misery)

1. Right observation

2. Right determination

3. Right speech

4. Right action

5. Right livelihood

6. Right exercise

7. Right memory

8. Right meditation

∙ Do not

1. Covet other’s property

2. Commit violence

3. Lie

4. Use intoxicants

5. Indulge in corrupt practices

∙ No god or atman exists

∙ Used Pali

∙ Main elements of Buddhism: Buddha, Sangha, Dhamma

∙ Brahmana ruler Pashyamitra Shunga persecuted the Buddhists

∙ Mihirakula (Huna king) killed Buddhists

∙ Buddhist text: Suttanipata

∙ Gandhara Art

∙ First human statues worshipped

∙ Barabar hills: Caves for monks

Image of Buddhism

Image of Buddhism

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