NCERT Class 8 History Chapter 1: How, When And Where YouTube Lecture Handouts

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Watch Video Lecture on YouTube: NCERT Class 8 History Chapter 1: How, when and Where

NCERT Class 8 History Chapter 1: How, when and Where

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Knowing the Dates? “Birthday Θ ??”

  • Temporal Phenomena

  • How things were in past

  • How things have changed

  • Gap between “before” and “after’

Image of Gap Between “before” and “after’

Image of Gap between “Before” and “After’

  • Robert Clive asked Rennel to produce maps of Hindustan

  • It is hard to fix things on one fine day – it started gradually and stretched over a period of time

  • Journey from “When” to “How and What”

Table of History Books - Past and History Books - Present
Table of History Books - Past And History Books - Present

History Books - Past

History Books - Present

When king was crowned?

How people earned livelihood?

When king was married?

What they produced?

When next ruler was put to throne?

How cities and Kingdom developed?

When king died?

How ideas spread and cultures changed?

Warren Hastings: 1st Governor General of India in 1773

How to Classify?

  • Either divide chronologically

  • Or divide periodically

1817: James Mill (Scottish economist and political philosopher) gave three-volume work, “A History of British India” - divided Indian history into three periods – Hindu, Muslim and British

Mill considered

  • Asians lower than Europeans

  • Hindu & Muslim period: Religious intolerance, caste taboos and superstitious practices

  • British period: Civilized India with art, institutions and laws

  • Explained to conquer all territories to spread enlightenment and happiness

Later Divisions

Adopted from West

  • Ancient

  • Medieval

  • Modern – growth of science, reason, democracy, liberty and equality

  • Colonial – no equality, freedom and economic growth, British subjugated local nawabs, controlled economy and collected revenue

Colonization - Subjugation of one country by another leads to political, economic, social and cultural changes

British: How Do We Know?

  • Source is official record of British Administration

  • Had culture of memos, notings and reports

  • Established record rooms attached to all administrative institutions

  • Archives and museums were established (Both National Museum and National Archives located close to Viceregal Palace in New Delhi)

  • Early 19th Century: Copied and beautifully written by Calligraphists

  • Mid-19th Century: printing started

  • Surveying became common for efficient administration

  • Detailed survey – revenue maps – soil, flora, fauna, local history and cropping pattern was explained

  • 10 yearly census operations started

  • Other surveys included botanical surveys, zoological surveys, archaeological surveys, anthropological surveys, forest surveys

  • (IMPORTANT: These were official records and expressed what officials thought or wanted, they didn’t reveal what people looked for)

What People Thought About? (Atrocities of Britishers)

  • Accounts of pilgrims and travelers

  • Autobiographies of important personalities

  • Popular booklets sold in the local bazaars

  • Views in newspapers

  • Public debates

  • Ideas of leaders and reformers

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