# Associating Indian Concepts and Terms in Logic Concepts With Western Fallacies

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• Logic can be defined as the Science and Art of correct thinking.

• It consists of thoughts, ideas, argument, account, reason or principle.

• Logic distinguishes correct from incorrect reasoning with the study of suitable methods and principles.

• Logic is responsible for laying down the rules for correct reasoning.

• It also distinguishes good arguments from the poor ones.

## Concepts and Terms in Logic

 Mental Operation Products External Signs Simple Apprehension Concept Oral and Written Terms Judgement Mental Proposition Oral and Written Propositions Reasoning Mental agreement or disagreement Oral and Written Arguments

## Western Logic

• According to Aristotle logic is the new and necessary reasoning as it allows us to learn what we do not know.

• It is necessary because the corresponding conclusions cannot be escaped.

## Types of Logic

### Formal Logic

• What we think of as traditional logic or philosophical logic.

• It can be expressed as a wholly abstract rule such as the rules of formal logic

### Informal Logic

• It is a recent discipline that studies natural language arguments.

• It also attempts to develop a logic assess, analyse and improve ordinary language (everyday reasoning).

### Symbolic Logic

• It is the study of symbolic instructions to capture the formal features of logical inference.

• It includes complex mathematical calculus while attempting to solve intractable problems which the traditional formal logic cannot address.

### Mathematical Logic

• The earliest use of Mathematics and Geometry with respect to logic and philosophy goes back to the Ancient Greeks such as Plato, Aristotle.

• Manipulating symbols according to definite and explicit rules.

## Indian Logic

• Related directly to the concepts of ATMAN and BRHMAN.

• VEDAS are considered to be main scriptures.

• The four main acceptances in Indian logic are Perception (pratyaksha), inference (Anumana), Comparison (Upamana), testimony (shabda).

• The four fold Dilemma in Indian logic are A is B, A is not B, A is B & A is not B, Neither A is B nor is A not B.

## Comparison and Contrast Preview

• The Indian logic dates back to just thousands of years with the concept of dilemma did not stop with first two propositions but fourfold dilemma.

• Both the logical aspects of western and Indian provide an opportunity to find truth in the world.

• Indian Logic contains meditation which is not there in the Western logic and it gives priority to the development of mind.

• Indian logicians make their investigation with involvement of religions whereas Western logicians make their investigation with the materialism.