Classical Indian Philosophy: Vaisesika School of Indian Philosophy: Creation

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The Concept of Parmanu-Vada

  • Effect does not pre-exist in the cause.

  • Creation is a new beginning, a fresh creation or arambhavada.

  • This doctrine is also known as Parmanu-Karana-Vada.

  • Indivisible particles are called atoms.

  • All the physical things or material things are produced by the combination of atoms (Creation).

  • Similarly, destruction is nothing but dissolution of such combinations of atoms.

  • Only the atomic combinations are subject to production and destruction.

  • So, Nyaya-Vaisesika advocates the theory of fresh creation.

  • Also known as asat-karya-vada or arambha-vada or parmanu-vada.

The Nature and Workings of Atom or Parmanu

  • According to Nyaya-Vaisesika, atoms are said to be of four kinds, earth, water, fire, and air.

  • These atoms combine in geometrical progression and they increase by multiplication.

  • Motion is imparted to them by adrsta or the unseen power.

  • When motion is imparted to them, they begin to vibrate or Paris Panda.

  • When they begin to vibrate, they immediately change into dyads.

  • A dyad is produced by combination of two atoms.

  • The atoms are its inherent cause, conjunction is its non-inherent cause and the unseen power or adrsta is its efficient cause.

The nature and workings of Atom or Parmanu

The Nature and Workings of Atom or Parmanu

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  • A dyad or dvyanuka is minute (anu), short (Hrasva), and imperceptible in nature.

  • Three dyads combine and form a triad or tryanuka.

  • A triad or tryanuka is great (Mahat), long (dirgha), and perceptible in nature.

  • So, the geometrical progression (not arithmetical) goes on till the gross elements like earth, water, fire, and air arise.

Atomism

  • The Vaisesika atomism is not materialistic atomism.

  • It also accepts the doctrine of the Law of Karma

  • The physical world pre-supposes the moral order.

  • Evolution is the result of the unseen power or adrsta consisting of merits and demerits of the individual souls which want to bear the fruits of their actions.

  • For instance, experience of enjoyments or sufferings and pain in life.

Questions

1. The effect does not pre-exist in the cause is called

A. Satkaryavada

B. Asatkaryavada

C. Both A and B

D. Creation

Answer: B

Explanation: According to Nyaya Vaisesika, the effect does not pre-exist in the cause. This belief belongs to the theory of asat-karyavada. According to them, creation is a new beginning, a fresh creation or arambhavada.

2. _____ is the minutest particle of matter which is indivisible, part-less and eternal in nature.

A. Parmanu

B. Atom

C. Both A and B

D. None of these

Answer: C

Explanation: Atom or Parmanu is the minutest particle of matter which is indivisible, part-less and eternal in nature.

3. Motion is imparted to atoms by _____

A. God

B. Adrsta

C. Both A and B

D. None of these

Answer: B

Explanation: Motion is imparted to them by adrsta or the unseen power.

4. A dyad or dvyanuka is

A. Short, minute, and imperceptible

B. Short, minute, and perceptible

C. Long, great, and imperceptible

D. Long, great, perceptible

Answer: A

Explanation: A dyad or dvyanuka is minute (anu), short (Hrasva), and imperceptible in nature.

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#Asatkaryavada

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