Classical Indian Philosophy Yoga Ethics part 2 for Andhra Pradesh PSC

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Classical Indian: Pranayama,Dharana,Samadhi,Asana Yoga Ethics (Philosophy)

Yoga

  • Yoga means cessation of the mental modifications (citta-vritti).

  • This goal of cessation of citta is known as citta-vritti-nirodha.

  • Yoga holds that liberation is a means of spiritual insight into the reality of the self and understanding that the self is distinct from the body and the mind.

  • In other words, it is to be able to distinguish between prakriti and purusha.

  • This realisation can only be had once the mind is free from all the impurities.

  • According to Patanjali, the purification of mind consists of eightfold means of discipline, they are; 1. Yama, 2. Niyama, 3. Asana, 4. Pranayama, 5. Pratyahara, 6. Dharana, 7. Dhyana, 8. Samadhi.

  • This concept is called Astang-Yoga.

  • Etymologically speaking, the word ashta means eight and anga means limbs.

  • So, it means eight limbs path. Ashtang-yoga or the eight limbs path constitutes to Raja-Yoga.

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  • These five discipline

    • 1. Yama, 2. Niyama, 3. Asana, 4. Pranayama 5. Pratyahara deals with restraint and self-culture. As a result, they are regarded as the external aids to Yoga or also known as “Bahiranga-sadhana.”

  • The remaining three disciplines, namely, 6. Dharana, 7. Dhyana and 8. Samadhi are internal aids to Yoga and are called “Antaranga-sadhana.” They are called internal aids because they are directly related to the state of samadhi. They are;

Dharana

  • The sixth discipline of attention is a mental discipline which consist in fixing the mind (dharana) on the desired object.

  • The object upon which the mind is fixed could be mid point of the eyebrows, one’s navel, tip of the nose, or it could be a nail on the wall, or an image of God, etc.

  • The aim is to develop the ability to keep one’s attention fixed.

  • In other words, the ability to keep the mind fixed on one object is the test of the fitness of one’s mind for entering the next higher stages, like dhyana and samadhi.

Dhyana

  • The seventh discipline is called mediation.

  • It means mediating without any break or disturbances. In other words, it means undisturbed flow of thought round the object of meditation.

  • In this, the object of mediation and the act of mediation are two different things.

Samadhi

  • The last discipline is called concentration.

  • In this the mind is completely engrossed in the object of mediation.

  • It is absorbed to an extent that there lies no difference between the object of meditation and the act of meditation.

  • In other words, they become one.

  • This is the highest means to realise citta-vritti-nirodha or cessation of modifications of citta.

Samadhi is of Two Types

  • 8.1 - Samprajnata or conscious samadhi:

  • In here, the consciousness of the object of mediation exists.

  • Meaning, the mind remains concentrated on the object while the meditator and the object become one.

  • Yet, the consciousness of the object persists.

  • It is also called Ekagra. This is said to be of four kinds;

    • Savitarka: It occurs when the mind is concentrated on a gross object, like the tip of the nose or the picture of a deity.

    • Savichara: It occurs when the mind is concentrated on a subtler object, like the tanmatras.

    • Sananda: It occurs when the mind is concentrated on a still subtler object which produces joy, like the senses.

    • Sasmita: It occurs when the mind is concentrated in the ego, the self. Here, we experience conscious ecstasy where individuality persists.

8.2 - Asamprajnata or Supra-Conscious Samadhi

  • In here, the consciousness of the object of mediation does not exist, it is transcended.

  • It is also called Niruddha.

  • In other words, it occurs when the meditator and the object of meditation are completely fused together, they become one and not even the consciousness of the object exists.

  • It is the highest form of Yoga, it is called the divine madness, perfect ecstasy difficult to describe and even more difficult to attain.

  • The ones who attain it cannot retain it for long, as a result, their body breaks and they attain complete liberation

Hence, Yoga advocates control over not just mind but also body and senses. These eightfold paths of discipline help in controlling the mind, body and the senses. So, Astang-marga yoga leads to liberation or Moksha.

MCQ

Q- 1.Samadhi is of two types

Options:

A. Conscious and Unconscious

B. Conscious and Supra-conscious

C. Conscious and Super-conscious

D. None of these

Answer: B

Q-2. _____ samadhi is also called divine madness

Options:

A. Samprajnata

B. Asamprajnata

C. Both A and B

D. Samadhi

Answer: B

Q-3. The eightfold path aims at controlling

Options:

A. Mind

B. Senses

C. Body

D. All of these

Answer: D

4. ______ samadhi occurs when the mind is concentrated in the ego, the self.

Options:

A. Sananda

B. Sasmita

C. Savicara

D. None of these

Answer: B

  • We learnt about:

#yoga

#ethics

#yama

#niyama

#asana

#pratyahara

#dhyana

#samadhi