Components of Brain Part 3: Forebrain, midbrain, and hind-brain for Andhra Pradesh PSC

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The brain can be subdivided into the forebrain, midbrain, and hind-brain. The sub cortex includes hindbrain and midbrain brain structures as well as the lower parts of the forebrain, below the cortex.

  • The medulla contains centers essential for reflex control of heart rate, breathing, and other “vegetative” functions.

  • The reticular formation directs sensory and motor messages, and part of it, known as the RAS, acts as an activating system for the cerebral cortex.

  • The thalamus carries sensory information to the cortex.

  • The hypothalamus exerts powerful control over eating, drinking, sleep cycles, body temperature, and other basic motives and behaviours.

  • The limbic system is strongly related to emotion. It also contains distinct reward and punishment areas and an area known as the hippocampus that is important for forming memories.