Crime and Delinquency: Introduction and Types of Juvenile Crimes

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Introduction

  • Crime committed by youth

  • Juvenile Justice Act, 1986

  • Status offences – truancy, immorality

  • Violation of criminal code

  • Patterns of behaviour

Types of Juvenile Crimes

By Trojanowicz

  • Accidental

  • Unsocialized

  • Professional

  • Gang organized

By Hirsh

  • Incorrigibility – disobedience, rebel

  • Truancy – skipping school

  • Larceny - petty theft to armed robbery

  • Destruction of property – public and private

  • Violence – may use weapons

  • Sex offences

By Eaton and Polk

  • Minor violations – e.g. breaking traffic light

  • Major violations – e.g. thefts

  • Property violation – trespassing

  • Addiction – alcoholism or drugs

  • Bodily harm – murder or rape

Types of Crimes

  • Individual crimes – psychological issues – faulty family – economic hardships

  • Group supported crimes – By Sutherland – companionship of family or peer – Differential association – learnt from who ?

  • Organized crimes – By Cohen – criminal subculture – guided by norms of that group

  • Situational crimes – heat of the moment – no deep-rooted intention

Causes

  • Psychological factors – personality disorders

  • Family environment – early childhood experiences – emotional deprivations – family tension – parental rejection or neglect

  • Peer group

  • Neighborhood – conflicts – anti social values

  • Mass media – pornographic literature or cinema – influenced by villains – techniques imitated

Remedies

  • Therapy - Psychological

  • Social engineering – dealing with conditions of social structure

  • Reality therapy – concerned with present behaviour

  • Active therapy – release emotions – friendly environment – free to express

  • Environment therapy

  • Behaviour therapy

  • Counselling

  • Probation hostels, Parole services

  • Establishing and coordinating welfare schools, rescue homes, orphanages

  • Social case work

  • Greater family attention

  • Primary Prevention

  • Rehabilitation or secondary prevention

  • Preventive programmes for runaway children

  • Positive communication

  • Coordination between various institutions like Police, Judiciary, NGOs etc.

MCQ

Q.1. Controlling environment of children contributing to crime will help bring down delinquency rates. The methods to adopt can be:

a) Raising income level of poverty-stricken families

b) Community organization

c) Childcare agencies

d) All of the above

Ans: b and c

Q.2. Some of the characteristics of crime area are :

a) Low income, economic deprivation

b) Exposure to social norms

c) Physically deteriorated

d) All of these

Ans: a and c

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