Computer & Main Parts of Computer – Software and MS Word, Network Related Terms

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Network Related Terms

  • Protocol - It is set of rules and standards which is used by computers to exchange data or information with each other across a network.

  • Nodes - It is a connect point where either data transmission ends or redistribution of data starts.

  • TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol) - basic communication language or protocol of the Internet.

  • IPV4 - 32 bits numeric address

  • IPV6 - 128 bits hexadecimal address.

  • File Transfer Protocol (FTP) is a standard network protocol used to transfer computer files between a client and server on a computer network.

  • Internet service provider (ISP) is an organization that provides services for accessing and using the Internet.

  • Network Service Provider (NSP) is a company that provides backbone services to an Internet service provider (ISP).

  • Web server is a program that uses HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) to serve the files that form Web pages to users, in response to their requests, which are forwarded by their computers’ HTTP clients. ♣

  • Website is a collection of related web pages, including multimedia content, typically identified with a common domain name ♣

  • Web Page is a hypertext document connected to the World Wide Web.

  • Home page - the introductory page of a website.

  • Hyperlink is a word, phrase, or image that you can click on to jump to a new document or a new section within the current document.

  • Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is an application protocol for distributed, collaborative, hypermedia information systems.

  • Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) is a technical standard for accessing information over a mobile wireless network.

  • URL (Uniform Resource Locator) is a form of URI and is a standardized naming convention for addressing documents accessible over the Internet and Intranet.


  • Internet- a global computer network providing a variety of information and communication facilities, consisting of interconnected networks using standardized communication protocols.

  • Modem - a combined device for modulation and demodulation, for example, between the digital data of a computer and the analogue signal of a telephone line.

  • Web Browser - Web browser is a software application used to locate, retrieve and display content on the World Wide Web, including Web pages, images and video.

Some Important File Extensions

Some important file extensions


Microsoft Word Document


PowerPoint Presentation


Bitmap Image File


JPEG Image


Excel Spreadsheet


Windows Executable File


Backup File


Software - the programs and other operating information used by a computer.

Types of Software

Types of software

System software

Application software

Programming software

Operating software

Educational software

Text editor


Spreadsheet software


Data driver

Word processors



  • Operating system software -An operating system (OS) is system software that manages computer hardware and software resources and provides common services for computer programs. The operating system is a component of the system software in a computer system.

  • Functions of operating system - The basic functions of an operating system are: Booting the computer. Performs basic computer tasks eg managing the various peripheral devices eg mouse, keyboard. Provides a user interface, e.g. command line, graphical user interface (GUI).

  • Spreadsheet software - A software interface consisting of an interactive grid made up of cells in which data or formulas are entered for analysis or presentation.

  • Word processors - a program or machine for storing, manipulating, and formatting text entered from a keyboard and providing a printout.

  • Compiler - A compiler is a computer program (or a set of programs) that transforms source code written in a programming language (the source language) into another computer language (the target language), with the latter often having a binary form known as object code.

  • Interpreter - a program that can analyse and execute a program line by line.

  • Database management system - software that handles the storage, retrieval, and updating of data in a computer system.

  • Antivirus Software - Anti-virus software is a program or set of programs that are designed to prevent, search for, detect, and remove software viruses, and other malicious software like worms, trojans, adware, and more.

  • Boot - The boot process is the name for the various steps the computer takes after you turn it on, all the way until the operating system is loaded.

  • Cold Boot - The start-up of a computer from a powered-down, or off, state. Also called a hard boot.

  • Warm Boot - restarting a computer via the operating system.

Microsoft Office

MS Office: Microsoft Office or Microsoft Office System is a collection of computer programs made by Microsoft. The programs are created for all users. There are different versions of the software for home users and for business users.

  • It was first announced by Bill Gates of Microsoft on August 1, 1988 at COMDEX in Las Vegas.

  • MS office primarily includes Word, Excel, PowerPoint, Access and Outlook. It also includes OneNote, Groove, InfoPath and Publisher.

MS Word

  • Microsoft Word is a word processor developed by Microsoft.

  • It is used for creating, editing, formatting, storing, retrieving and printing of a text document.

  • Microsoft Word’s native file formats are denoted either by a .doc or .docx file extension.

Some Important Tools in Microsoft Word

  • Header and Footer option is used to display information such as title and page number of the document.

  • Title Bar -The bar at the top of the window that bears the name of the window.

  • Menu Bar - A screen element of MS Word that is usually located below the title bar that provides categorised option.

  • Thesaurus - is used for finding a synonym for a word in the document.

  • Style - Changes the style of the selected text

  • Font - Changes the font for the selected text

  • Font Size - Changes the point size of the selected text

  • Bold - Makes the selected text bold

  • Italic - Makes the selected text italic

  • Underline - Underlines the selected text

  • Align Left, Align Right, Centre - Aligns the selected text/paragraph

  • Justify - Justifies the selected text/paragraph

  • New - Creates a new, blank document

  • Open - Displays the Open dialog box so that you can retrieve an existing document

  • Save, Print, Print Preview - Saves the active document to a specified location, prints active document Displays what the document will look like when you print it

  • Spell Checker - Checks active document for spelling and grammatical errors

  • Cut, Copy, Paste - Cuts the selected text and places it on the clipboard then Copies Select text and Pastes the contents of the clipboard to a new location

  • Undo - Undoes the last document change

  • Redo - Redoes the last action that was undone

  • Insert Hyperlink - Creates a hyperlink from the selected text.