Computer & Main Parts of Computer – Terminology of Computers

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Computer Terminology

  • Computer Graphics Computer Graphics are visual presentations on a computer screen. Examples are photographs, drawings, line arts, graphs, diagrams, typography numbers, symbols, geometric designs, maps, engineering drawings or other images.

  • Cold Boot When a computer restarts after the power cut is called cold boot

  • Control Panel - It is the part of Windows menu. accessible from the start menu, which allows users to view and manipulate basic system settings and controls, such as adding hardware. adding/removing software, controlling user accounts, changing accessibility options, etc.

  • Chat - A method of communication in which people type text messages to each other, thereby holding a conversation over a network such as the Internet.

  • Clipboard - A holding area in memory where information that has been copied or cut (text, graphics, sound, or video) can be stored until the information is inserted elsewhere.

  • CMOS - A type of computer chip which is able to operate with a very small amount of electricity from a battery. CMOS refers as complementary metal oxide semiconductor.

  • Cookie - A packet of information that travels between a browser and the web server.

  • Crash A malfunction in hardware or software that keeps a computer from functioning.

  • Crawler – It is an Internet bot which systematically browses the World Wide Web, typically for the purpose of Web indexing (web spidering).

  • Data - Information consisting of letters, numbers, symbols, sound, or images—in a form that can be processed by a computer.

  • Database - A database is a collection of information that is organized so that it can easily be accessed, managed, and updated.

  • Data abstraction – It is the reduction of a particular body of data to a simplified representation of the whole.

  • Data processing – It refers to the process of collecting and manipulating raw data to yield useful information.

  • Disk Operating System (DOS) - A disk operating system (abbreviated DOS) is a computer operating system that can use a disk storage device, such as a floppy disk, hard disk drive, or optical disc.

  • Debugging - Locating and eliminating defects in a program.

  • Delete - A command to erase information in storage.

  • Directory - A list of the files stored on a disk.

  • Dots Per Inch (DPI) It is defined as the measure of the resolution of a printer, scanner or monitor

  • Download –A copy (data) from one computer system to another, typically over the Internet.

  • Editing - The process of changing information by inserting, deleting, replacing, rearranging, and reformatting.

  • EDO (Extended Data Output) RAM is a type of random access memory (RAM) chip that improves the time to read from memory on faster microprocessors such as the Intel Pentium.

  • E-mail Electronic mail, abbreviated e-mail is a method of composing, sending, storing and receiving messages over electronic communication systems.

  • Encapsulation It is a mechanism that associates the code and the data it manipulates into a single unit and keeps them safe from external interference.

  • Encryption In cryptography, encryption is the process of encoding messages (or information) in such a way that hackers cannot read it, but the authorised users can access it.

  • End User Any individual who uses the information oefierated by a computer based system.

  • Entity An entity is something that has certain attributes or properties which may be assigned values.

  • Ethernet Card - A network adapter that enables a computer to connect to an ethernet.

  • Execution Time The total time required to execute a program on a particular system.

  • Export - To save information from one computer or program to another.

  • Fax - It stands for ‘Facsimile machine’. It is used to transmit a copy of a document electronically.

  • Field - The attributes of an entity are written as fields in the table representation.

  • File A collection of information stored electronically and treated as a unit by a computer. Every file must have its own distinctive name

  • File Manager The file manager is an operating system utility that provides a user interface to work with file systems

  • File Server A computer on a network that stores the Programs and data files shared by the users of the

  • Firmware is a technology which has the combination of both hardware and software .

  • Fax modem - A device built into or attached to a computer that serves as a facsimile machine and a modem.

  • Floating-point Numbers Signed numbers held in a traction exponent format.

  • Floppy disk A floppy disk is a data storage device that is composed of a circular piece of thin, flexible (i.e , floppy) magnetic storage medium encased in a square or rectangular plastic walled.

  • Flowcharts are the means of visually representing the flow of data through an information processing system, the operations an performed within the system and the sequence in which they are performed.

  • Format To set margins, tabs, font or line spacing in layout of a document.

  • Frame The basic packages of information on a network channel

  • Frequency The number of oscillations of a signal per unit of time. It is usually expressed in cycles per second (cps or hertz Hz)

  • Function Key A special key on a computer keyboard or a terminal devices keyboard that is used to perform specific functions. KeysF1 to Fl0.

  • Gigahertz (Ghz) - A measurement used to identify the speed of the central processing unit.

  • Garbage in Garbage Out (GIGO) It pertains to the fact that most computer errors are not errors, they are data errors caused by incorrect input data.

  • Graphic Interchange Format (GIF) A simple file format for pictures and photographs, that are compressed so they can be sent quickly.

  • Graphical User Interface A Graphical User Interface (or GUI) is a method of interacting with a computer through a metaphor of direct manipulating of graphical images and widgets in addition to text.

  • Glitch A hardware problem that causes a computer to malfunction or crash.

  • Hard copy - Text or graphics printed on paper; also called a printout.

  • Hard disk - A rigid type of magnetic medium that can store large amounts of information.

  • Hardware - The physical components of a computer.

  • serves as the entrance for a series of related pages.

  • Host computer - A computer that provides information or a service to other computers on the Internet.

  • Hacker A computer criminal who penetrates and tempers with computer programs or systems.

  • High-Level Programming Languages A high-level programming language is a

  • Instant messaging - A chat program that lets people communicate over the Internet in real time.

  • Integrated circuit - Multiple electronic components combined on a tiny silicon chip. Interface - The electrical connection that links two pieces of equipment so that they can communicate with each other.

  • Intranet - A private network established by an organization for the exclusive use of its employees.

  • Icon - A symbol (such as picture or a folder) that represents a certain function on your computer

  • Information is the summarization of data according to a certain pre-defined purpose

  • Input In order to give instructions to a computer, the information has to be supplied to it.

  • Instruction A command or order given to a computer to perform a task.

  • Instruction Cycle Fetching and decoding operations of the machine cycle.

  • Interface A device or program that helps a user to communicate with a computer.

  • Interpreter A program that converts and executes the source code into machine code line by line.

  • Integrated Circuits Multiple electronic components combined on a silicon chip.

  • Java - A programming language designed for programs or applets used over the Internet.

  • Justification - Aligning lines of text at the left margin, the right margin, both margins, or the centre.