Power Management in International Relation: Collective Security

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Collective Security

  • Most promising approach to peace and valuable device power management in IR.

  • A commitment on part of all the nations to collectively meet an aggression that may be committed by any state against another.

  • Modern device of power management.

  • Effective in preservation of peace and security.

  • Has been designed as deterrent against all possible aggression is so far as it lays down that the collective power of the nation shall be used against anyone member of the international community,

  • Palmer and Perkins writes – collective security clearly implies collective measures for dealing with threat to peace.

  • In it is assumed that maintenance of peace and security is legitimate common interest and will be accepted as fundamental responsibility by all states.

  • It is a conceptual manifestation of the principle of “one for all, all for one”.

Characteristics

  • Device of power management.

  • It accepts universality of aggression.

  • All nations are committed to pool their power and eliminate aggression.

  • It involves the concept of an Adhoc Global preponderance of Power.

  • Postulates the presence of international organisation.

  • It’s a middle level system between balance of power and world government.

  • Collective security as a deterrent.

Difference between Balance of Power and Collective Security

Balance of Power and Collective Security

Balance of Power and Collective Security

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  • Collective Security Under The League OF Nations defined in article 10,11 and 16 of the covenant.

  • Made it responsibility of all the members , who in the event of aggression against any member, were to unanimously create a preponderance of power against the aggressor and thereby to repel the aggression through a collective security war.

  • The failure of the covenant to define aggression and to clearly lay down the rules regarding disputes between members and outside further made the system very weak and rendered it impracticable .

Collective Security under United Nations

  • UN charter gave primacy to maintenance of international peace and security as the major objectives of international relations.

  • This is quite evident in the text of the charter.

  • The very first article of the UN charter reads - To maintain international peace and security, and to that end: to take effective collective measures for the prevention and removal of threats to the peace, and for the suppression of acts of aggression or other breaches of the peace, and to bring about by peaceful means, and in conformity with the principles of justice and international law, adjustment or settlement of international disputes or situations which might lead to a breach of the peace;

  • The Collective security system has been laid down in chapter 7 of the UN Charter and its heading reads – “Action with respect to threats to the peace, breaches of peace and acts of Aggression”.

  • It contains 13 articles from article 39-51.

Article 39

The Security Council shall determine the existence of any threat to the peace, breach of the peace, or act of aggression and shall make recommendations, or decide what measures shall be taken in accordance with Articles 41 and 42, to maintain or restore international peace and security.

Article 40

In order to prevent an aggravation of the situation, the Security Council may, before making the recommendations or deciding upon the measures provided for in Article 39, call upon the parties concerned to comply with such provisional measures as it deems necessary or desirable. Such provisional measures shall be without prejudice to the rights, claims, or position of the parties concerned. The Security Council shall duly take account of failure to comply with such provisional measures.

Article 41

The Security Council may decide what measures not involving the use of armed force are to be employed to give effect to its decisions, and it may call upon the Members of the United Nations to apply such measures. These may include complete or partial interruption of economic relations and of rail, sea, air, postal, telegraphic, radio, and other means of communication, and the severance of diplomatic relations.

Article 42

Should the Security Council consider that measures provided for in Article 41 would be inadequate or have proved to be inadequate, it may take such action by air, sea, or land forces as may be necessary to maintain or restore international peace and security. Such action may include demonstrations, blockade, and other operations by air, sea, or land forces of Members of the United Nations.

Article 43

All Members of the United Nations, in order to contribute to the maintenance of international peace and security, undertake to make available to the Security Council, on its call and in accordance with a special agreement or agreements, armed forces, assistance, and facilities, including rights of passage, necessary for the purpose of maintaining international peace and security.

Article 44

When the Security Council has decided to use force it shall, before calling upon a Member not represented on it to provide armed forces in fulfilment of the obligations assumed under Article 43, invite that Member, if the Member so desires, to participate in the decisions of the Security Council concerning the employment of contingents of that Member’s armed forces.

Article 45

In order to enable the United Nations to take urgent military measures, Members shall hold immediately available national air-force contingents for combined international enforcement action. The strength and degree of readiness of these contingents and plans for their combined action shall be determined within the limits laid down in the special agreement or agreements referred to in Article 43, by the Security Council with the assistance of the Military Staff Committee.

Article 46

Plans for the application of armed force shall be made by the Security Council with the assistance of the Military Staff Committee.

Article 47

There shall be established a Military Staff Committee to advise and assist the Security Council on all questions relating to the Security Council’s military requirements for the maintenance of international peace and security, the employment and command of forces placed at its disposal, the regulation of armaments, and possible disarmament.

Article 48

The action required to carry out the decisions of the Security Council for the maintenance of international peace and security shall be taken by all the Members of the United Nations or by some of them, as the Security Council may determine.

Article 49

The Members of the United Nations shall join in affording mutual assistance in carrying out the measures decided upon by the Security Council.

Article 50

If preventive or enforcement measures against any state are taken by the Security Council, any other state, whether a Member of the United Nations or not, which finds itself confronted with special economic problems arising from the carrying out of those measures shall have the right to consult the Security Council with regard to a solution of those problems.

Article 51

Nothing in the present Charter shall impair the inherent right of individual or collective self-defense if an armed attack occurs against a Member of the United Nations, until the Security Council has taken measures necessary to maintain international peace and security.

MCQs

1. Collective security is placed under____?

  1. Chapter viii

  2. Chapter v

  3. Chapter vii

  4. Chapter iv

Ans. C

Explanation: The Collective security system has been laid down in chapter 7 of the UN Charter and its heading reads – “Action with respect to threats to the peace , breaches of peace and acts of Aggression”.

It contains 13 articles from article 39-51.

2. Which articles provides for - determine the existence of any threat to the peace, breach of the peace, or act of aggression and shall make recommendations’?

  1. Article 39

  2. Article 40

  3. Article 42

  4. Article 42

Ans. A

Explanation: The Security Council shall determine the existence of any threat to the peace, breach of the peace, or act of aggression and shall make recommendations, or decide what measures shall be taken in accordance with Articles 41 and 42, to maintain or restore international peace and security.

3. ‘one for all , all for one’ is a ____?

  1. Collective security system

  2. Balance of power

  3. Both

  4. None

Ans. a

Explanation: In collective security system it is assumed that maintenance of peace and security is legitimate common interest and will be accepted as fundamental responsibility by all states.

It is a conceptual manifestation of the principle of “one for all, all for one”.

4. Which articles empowers security council to take military actions?

  1. Article 39

  2. Article 40

  3. Article 41

  4. Article 42

Ans. D

Explanation: Should the Security Council consider that measures provided for in Article 41 would be inadequate or have proved to be inadequate, it may take such action by air, sea, or land forces as may be necessary to maintain or restore international peace and security. Such action may include demonstrations, blockade, and other operations by air, sea, or land forces of Members of the United Nations.

5. Which article provide for enforcement action?

  1. Article 41

  2. Article 51

  3. Article 39

  4. Article 40

Ans. A

Explanation: The Security Council may decide what measures not involving the use of armed force are to be employed to give effect to its decisions, and it may call upon the Members of the United Nations to apply such measures.

#Collective Actions

# Charter Of UN# Peace and Security

# Military Action

#Enforcement Action

#World Government#Aggressor