Fundamental Technical Terms in Psychology for Bihar PSC

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  • Cognitive Dissonance Theory: Festinger

  • Thurstone: Equal Appearing Scale

  • Likert: Summated Ratings Scale

  • Bogardus: Social Distance Scale

  • Guttman: Scalogram

  • Osgood: Semantic Differential Techniques

  • Adorno: F-Scale

  • Spranger: Types of Man and 6 Types of Values

  • Balance Theory (Attitude): Heider and Newcomb

  • Congruity Theory (Attitude): Osgood and Tannenbaum

  • Marijuana is called as Cannabis Sativa

  • Delta Waves: Deep Sleep

  • In Stage I of Sleep There are No Alpha Waves

  • Shift of vision from cones to rods is Called as Purkinje Phenomena

  • Visual Apparatus arise when body of the pilot is in rotation with aircraft and is called as Coriolis Phenomena

  • Cell Assembly Phase Sequence Theory (Perception): Hebb

  • Adaption Level Theory (Perception): Helson

  • Motor Adjustment Level Theory: Freeman

  • Sensory Tonic Field Level Theory: Werner and Wapner

  • Attribution: Process of Making Inferences about the Traits

  • Validity Measures what it is Made for and is of 4 Types as Content, Predictive, Concurrent and Construct

  • Reliability Tests Consistency

  • DSM is the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders by American Psychiatric Association

  • Types of Behavior Modification:

    • Flooding: at Random and at Once

    • Systematic Desensitization: Slow and Gradual

    • Exposure and Response: Need to Protect

  • Relaxation: Do it Easy and do not worry

  • Anxiety: Gaba

  • Obsessive Compulsive Disorder: Serotonin

  • Phobia: Given Beta Blockers as Medication

  • Kleptomania: Steal Meaningless Things

  • Fetishism: Worship God

  • Dissociative Hysteria is More Serious and Personality Disintegration Occurs

  • Broca’s Area in Brain: Motor Speech and Expression and Fluency

  • Wernike’s Area: Sensory Speech and Comprehension and Temporal Lobe

  • Physical to Nervous Energy is Called as Transduction

  • Mutism: Know what to Say but cannot Say

  • Ambivalence: Inability to Decide for or Against

  • Von Domarus Law: Lord Ram is Hindu, I Am Hindu so I Am Lord Ram

  • Psycho-Cybernetic Imagery: Use imagination to create vivid images

  • Krutchfield Described Leadership as Authoritarian and Democratic

  • Anosmia: Loss of Smell

  • Anopia: Loss of Sight

  • Analgesia: Loss of Pain

  • Astasia: Loss of Walking

  • Anacusia: Loss of Hearing

  • Type A Personality: Restless and Achieving, Sustained aggression, Ambition, Competitiveness, Urgency, Impatience

  • Type B Personality: Less Motivated

  • Somnambulism: Walk in Sleep

  • Neurasthenia: Excessive Fatigue

  • Emotional Wheel by Plutchik

  • Level of Aspiration by Dembo, 1931

  • Alienation: Detachment from Self and Society

  • Apathy: Void of Emotions

  • Transformational Generative Grammar Concept by Chomsky

  • Important Concepts Emphasized by Psychologists:

    • Jung: Unconsciousness (Neo-Freudian)

    • Alder: Individual or Perfection (Neo-Freudian)

    • Horney: Environmental (Neo-Freudian)

    • Fromm: Success and Failure of Society (Neo-Freudian)

    • Erikson: Social Interaction (Neo-Freudian)

    • Reinforcement Learning: Dollard and Miller

    • Social Learning: Bandura and Walters

    • Client Centered Therapy: Rogers

    • Rational Emotive Psychotherapy: Albert Ellis

    • Primal Therapy: A.V. Janov: Recollection of Painful Experiences

    • Logotherapy: V. E. Frankl: Spiritual Aspect: Paradoxical Intention

    • Psychodrama: Moreno

    • Transactional Analysis: Berne

    • Crisis Therapy: Caplan

    • Interpersonal Psychotherapy: Klerman

    • Relaxation Therapy: Jacobson

    • Assertive Training: Wolpe

  • Term Behavior Therapy by Eysenck

  • Halo Effect: Answer is Chosen to Fit Previously Chosen Answers and Response Become what is Expected by Observer

  • Hawthorne Effect: Researchers Alter the Situations by Their Presence

  • IQ was Proposed by Stern and Ratio IQ by Terman

  • Term Projective Test Given by L.K. Frank

  • TAT: Thematic Appreciation Test by Morgan and Murray

  • Rorschach Test by Swiss Hermann Rorschach

  • Hypnosis: Suggestions Given to the Subjects Who Begin to Work Accordingly

  • First Formal Psychological Laboratory in USA at John Hopkins University in 1883

  • Classical Conditioning (S Type): Pavlov

  • Positive Reinforcement: Thorndike

  • Operant Conditioning (R Type): Skinner

  • Insight Theory: Kohler

  • Pavlov Was Awarded Nobel Prize in 1904 for His Research on Digestive Glands

  • Human Brain has 150 Billion Neurons

  • Hysteria is Associated with Tics

  • Schizophrenia is Associated with Split Personality

  • Tolman: Cognitive Learning

  • Programmed Learning: Pressey

  • Probability Learning: Brunswik

  • Neurons: Afferent or Sensory are Body to Spinal Cord

  • Efferent or Motor are Spinal Cord to Body

  • Swift Potential Difference = Spike Potential

  • Depolarization = All or None Law

  • Left and Right Hemisphere are Connected by Corpus Callosum

  • Medulla Oblongata: Body Balancing, Respiratory, Circulation and Reflex

  • Anterior Hypothalamus: Parasympathetic: Temperature and Motivation and is Relaxed

  • Posterior Hypothalamus: Sympathetic: Control Carbohydrate, Fat and Water and is Aroused

  • Monocular Cues: Each Eye Can See Independent of Each Other

  • Binocular Cues: Both Eyes Focus to See a Common Object

  • Empathy Theory of Illusion: Lipps

  • Eye Movement Theory of Illusion: Cohen and Festinger

  • Prejudice: Preconceived attitude towards some object or individual and is part of affective behavior

  • Stereotype: Term by Lipman: cause false classification attached to like and dislikes and is cognitive behavior

  • Catharsis: Relieving of emotions by any means including yelling or crying

  • Endogamy: Member of a Caste Marry among Themselves

  • Queuing: Delaying information processing during peak periods

  • Discrimination is a Behavioral Aspect

  • Zullner Illusion: 4 Lines are Parallel but do not look so

  • Poggendorff Illusion: The vertical lines cutting the 2 parallel horizontal lines are two in number but looks like one

  • Ebbinghaus: Forgetting Curve: Discovered speed of learning and speed of forgetting

  • Descartes: 1st Psychologist of Modern Psychology of 17th Century

  • Aristotle: Primary Law of Associations

  • British Empiricists and Association: Hume, Hartley and Mill

  • John Locke: Radial Environment: Tabula Rasa

  • Wundt: 1st Psychology Laboratory in the World 1879 at Lipzing University in Germany on sensation and introspection

  • Binet and Simon in France: Intelligence Test

  • Galton: Mental Measurements and Individual Differences

  • Oswald Kulpe: 1896: Established Psychology Laboratory at Wurzburg to study complex phenomena of thinking, memory and judgment

  • Overt Behavior: As Observed by Others

  • Covert Behavior: As Within Individual

  • Hormic or Purposive: William Mac Dougall: Inspiration and Instinct

  • 1st Psychology Laboratory in India at Calcutta University in 1916 by Dr. N.N. Sengupta

  • 1924: Spearman’s Student M.V. Gopalswami Established Psychology Laboratory in Mysore University

  • 1925: Indian Science Congress Considered it in Yearly Conference

  • 1926: Indian Journal of Psychology

  • 1942: Journal of Education and Psychology

  • 1922: Indian Psychiatric Association and 1947 Started the Journal ‘Samiksha’

  • For 1st Time in India C.H. Rice Developed Indian Adaptation of Binet Performance

  • Structuralism: By Wundt and His Student Titchner at Cornell University: Introspection and Self-Observation

  • Functionalism: William James, Dewey (Reflex Arc Concept), Dynamic Psychology

  • Behaviorism: by J.B. Watson

  • Gestalt: 1912 Germany by Kohler, Koffa and Wertheimer: Wholeness Concept

  • Cones in Eyes: Daytime Light

  • Rods in Eyes: Night Time Vision

  • Left Hemisphere of Brain: Analytical, Logical, Mathematical, Cause and Effect and Language Areas

  • Right Hemisphere of Brain: Images, Sensory Input, Synthesis of Information, Artist, Composer, Recognition and Spatial Ability

  • Visual Area: Occipital Lobe

  • Hearing and Taste: Temporal Lobe

  • Touch, Pain and Pressure: Parietal Lobe

  • Placebo: Pharmacologically Inactive but Told to have Desired Effect

  • Camouflage Works because it Breaks up the Contours

  • Operant Conditioning: Shaping

  • Classical Conditioning: Auto-Shaping

  • Reconstruction: Confabulation

  • Sympathetic Nervous System: Noradrenaline: Accelerate All

  • Parasympathetic Nervous System: Acetylcholine: Work opposite to Sympathetic Nervous System

  • Information Processing Theory: Atkinson-Shiffrin

  • Heavy Drinking Leads to Brain Damage: Korsaff Syndrome

  • Linguistics: Study of Language

  • Psycholinguistics: Use Language to Understand and Generate

  • Opponent Process Theory: Hedonistic View

  • Machiavellianism by Machiavelli: Advice to Rulers to Maintain Power

  • Lie Detector: Polygraph

  • Freud: Interpretation of Dreams

  • Non Parametric Tests: Chi Square Test

  • Positive Skewness: Mean is Maximum and Mode is Minimum

  • Dispersion: Amount of Variation

  • Skewness: Direction of Variation

    • 1st Moment by Origin: Mean

    • 2nd Moment by Origin: Variance

    • 3rd Moment by Origin: Skewness

    • 4th Moment by Origin: Kurtosis (Flatness-Platykurtic and Peakedness-Leptokurtic)

  • Rank Correlation in Psychology by Spearman: 1904

  • F-Test by Fisher: Find out whether two independent estimates of population variance differ significantly

  • ANOVA: Analysis of Variance: Fischer: To test whether means of more than two quantitative populations are equal and based on the assumptions of Normality, Homogeneity, and Independence of Error.

  • Inductive: Factual and Deductive: Based on Assumptions

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