Indian Ethics the Concept of Rna & Yajna for Chhattisgarh PSC

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Image of Indian Ethics the Concept of Rna and Yajna

Image of Indian Ethics the Concept of Rna and Yajna

Complete Video at - The concept of Rna & Yajna - concept of Panca-Maha-Yajna: Indian Ethics (Philosophy)

The Concept of Rna

  • Rna means debts, or duties or obligations that we have to perform or repay.

  • According to the Vedic and the Upanishadic world-view, each man is bound by some duties and obligation in life.

  • These duties are not just the mere boundations but real modes of social freedom.

  • It has been said that, man is said to owe some debts or man is said to perform his duties towards Gods, men and animals.

  • As per our Vedic traditions, no man is to touch his meals without offering parts of it first to his Gods, fathers, other men and animals.

  • This is primarily done to inculcate the virtue of charity and unselfishness amongst people and to practice harmony within the world.

  • These duties are distinguished into five levels, they are;

  • Man is said to owe debts to the Gods. It is mentioned in Taitariya Upanishad.

  • Man is said to owe debts to the Seers or Rishis.

  • Man is said to owe debts to Manes or Ancestors

  • Man is said to owe debts to other Men. It is mentioned in text, Sthathapratha Brahman.

  • Man is said to owe debts to those belonging to lower creations, for instance, animals. It is mentioned in Sthathapratha Brahman.

  • In short, according to the Vedic and the Upanishadic world-view, life is a round of fulfilling duties and obligations.

  • Hence, a man who discharges these owes and fulfils one’s duties and obligations are called a virtuous man.

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The Five Debts or the Panca-Rna;

Image of The Five Debts or The Panca-Rna;

Image of the Five Debts or the Panca-Rna;

Image of The Five Debts or The Panca-Rna;

The first-three Rnas are of utmost importance.

  • Deva Rna: or debt towards Gods, it can be repaid by performing sacrifices or yajnas to God. It belongs to both, Grihastha and Vanaprastha Ashrams.

  • Rishi Rna: or debt towards Seers, it can be repaid by studying the Vedas and practising Brahmacharya. It belongs to Brahmacharya Ashrama.

  • Pitr Rna: or debt towards Ancestors, it can be repaid by taking care of the family and carrying on the family lineage. It belongs to Grihastha Ashrama.

  • Manushya Rna: or debt towards other Men, it can be repaid by helping other men in need, for instance, by offering food, financial assistance, etc.

  • Rna towards Lower Creation: For example, debt towards Animals, it can be repaid by taking care of them, feeding them food, etc.

  • According to Manu-smriti, “a man can aspire to achieve moksha or liberation only when he has repaid the three Rnas.”

The Concept of Yajna

  • The Vedic period primarily consists of four main themes;

  • Emphasis on the importance of duties, obligations or Rna

  • Observance of Varna and Ashrams.

  • Eternity of Vedas

  • Supremacy of Priests (for the performance of Yajnas)

  • The concept of Yajna is regarded as the highest good in Vedic ethics.

  • Yajna is also known as sacrifice.

  • The word yajna is derived from the root word, “yaj” which means;

  • Deva puja or worshipping deities

  • Saogati karana or unity

  • Dana or charity

  • In the Vedic times, yajna was regarded as a means to save the worldly creatures from the natural hazards. In the Brahmanic period, yajna became a path to attain heavenly position.

The Concept of Panca-Maha-Yajna

  • According to the Vedic world-view, there are five types of Yajnas. They are also called the Panca-Maha-Yajnas. They are;

  • Deva Yajna: It is associated with pleasing and worshipping Gods or divinities. This should be performed daily.

  • Brahman or Rishi Yajna: It is associated with the study of holy scriptures. This should be performed whenever possible.

  • Pitra Yajna: It is associated with making offerings. This should be performed daily.

  • Bhuta Yajna: It is associated with feeding all the members of the lower creation. For example, giving food cakes to animals. This should be performed daily.

  • Manushya Yajna: It is associated with providing alms and aids to fellow humans.

The Importance of Priests or Rtviks

Image of Priests or Rtviks

Image of Priests or Rtviks

Image of Priests or Rtviks

The performing of the Yajna

  • According to the Vedic traditions, the priest is an active agent who understands the magical powers of each syllable uttered (mantras) during the performance of yajnas and helps in conducting them.

  • Yajnas were performed by the Yajmana (the passive agent) for the attainment of earthly profits, to become immortal like Gods, to attain heavenly bliss, etc.

  • As a result, the priests or the rtviks were awarded with the dignity of God on Earth.

The Four Types of Priests

  • Yajnas have four different types of priests or rtviks. They are;

  • Hota: The Vedic priest of Rig Veda is called hota. They welcome Gods and praise them. They contemplate on the deity of fire (speech).

  • Udgata: The Vedic priest of Sama Veda is called udgata. They chant the hymns and contemplate on the deity of breath.

  • Adhvaryu: The Vedic priest of Yajur Veda is called adhvaryu. They check the physical details, for instance, they take care of measurements of havan-kund, etc. They contemplate on the deity of Sun (eye).

  • Brahman: The Vedic priest of Atharva Veda is called brahman. They act as the superintendent of the entire yajna. Their job is to correct mistakes. They contemplate on the deity of Moon (mind).

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#Rna

#sacrifice

#Vedic

#Upanishadic

#world-view

#debts

#rtviks

#ethics

#Indian

#ethics

#traditions

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