Styles of Temples & Three Sub Schools: Odisha, Chandella and Solanki for Kerala PSC

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Styles of Temples

  • The Shilpashastra recognizes three styles along with a geographical distribution of each.

  • Nagara style-northern region

  • Dravida style-southern region

  • Vesara style-region between the vindhyas and the krishna

Nagara Style

Image of Nagara Style

Image of Nagara Style

Image of Nagara Style

  • Crucified ground plan.

  • Square or rectangular temple.

  • garbhgriha

  • Panchayatan style

  • Each vertical plane was divided in three vertical walls 3 ratha used to do sculptures.

  • Absence of tank(tank was the main feature of Dravidian style)

  • Pillared approach

  • Shikhara gradually curving inwards-curvilinear tower 9 shikhara)

  • Developed regionally.

Three Subschools

  • Odisha school

  • Chandella school/Khajuraho school

  • Solanki school-maru-gurjar school

Odisha School

Image of odisha Temples

Image of Odisha Temples

Image of odisha Temples

  • Time period 8th to 13th century

  • Part of Nagara School.

  • All features of nagara style are present.

  • Exterior walls are beautifully carved and Interior walls are plain.

  • No use of pillars.

  • Technical innovation Use of iron girders the roof was partly supported by these iron girdars.

  • The shikhar in this Odisha style is called Deul

  • Mandap(assembly hall) is called jagmohan

  • Ground plan of main temple square

  • They have boundary walls

  • Erotic sculptures found on the walls of kornak temple

  • Ex. Lingraja temple,Bhuvneshwar

  • Konark temple,Rajarani temple

Chandella School/Khajuraho School

Image of Khajuraho Temple

Image of Khajuraho Temple

Image of Khajuraho Temple

  • Integrated carvings on both interior and exterior walls.

  • Temple stands on heigher terrace comparatively.

  • Temple has main three elements

    • Garbhgriha

    • Mandap

    • Portico

  • Theme of sculpture erotic themes taken from kamsutra.

  • Impression of mountain range from distance

  • Panchayatan style

  • Ex. kandaria mahadeo temple

Solanki School/Maru Gurjar Style

Image of Sloanki Architecture

Image of Sloanki Architecture

Image of Sloanki Architecture

  • Branch of later chalukyas

  • Not fundamentally different from khajuraho.

  • Main feature minute and lovely decorativeness

  • The ceillings are carved to give the impression of a true dome.

  • Arch like effect but no true arch was employed.

  • Mostly of sandstone.

  • Grey to black basaltic stone.

  • Lavish carving on both sides of the walls and sculpture work.

  • Walls of central shrine devoid of carving.

  • Civic type of monuments

  • Ex. gateway of dhubai,

  • Delwara,vastupal,vimala and tejpala jain temples at mount abu,rajasthan

  • Jayastambh at chittor

Image of Jain Temples

Image of Jain Temples

Image of Jain Temples

  • Temple faces the east.

  • Every year at the time of equinox, the sun shines directly into this central shrine.

  • 3 principal components

  • A rectangular reservoir with flagged flights of steps interspaced by small shrines.

  • The lofty kirtitoranaa

  • Open pillared half of cruciform shape