Watch video lecture on YouTube: Concepts: Simultaneous & Successive Scanning, Conservative Focusing & Focus Gambling Concepts: Simultaneous & Successive Scanning, Conservative Focusing & Focus Gambling
• Concepts are part of thinking

• Learning concept is like problem solving – we must think in order to learn concepts

• Concept cannot be formed by seeing a single instance – red toy box (red can be toy or box or apple….)

• Person must see many examples before confirming or denying a hypothesis about concept

• Concept learning (simple or complex) is slow process

3 Elements of Concepts

• Examples (positive and negative) which contain all the characteristic features or essential attributes in them

• Attributes (essential and non-essential) are the features of objects. Essential attributes are the common features of the concepts

• Attribute value is the specific content of that category

Types of Concepts

• Conjunctive concepts are defined by the joint presence of several attributes.

• Disjunctive concepts require the presence of some attributes and the absence of others.

• Relational concepts have several attributes, but these bear some kind of relationship to one another

81 cards

 Features 3 values for each feature Borders 1 to 3 Shapes Circle, Cross, Square Number of Objects 1 to 3 Color Red, Green, Black
• Can create 255 hypothesis

• Conjunctive concepts – joint presence of two or more features (zebra as mammal – of size and shape of horse found in wild)

4 Strategies for Concept Attainment

Simultaneous Scanning

• Subject rationally uses information to eliminate several hypotheses and rationally thinks that remaining hypotheses can be true.

• Eliminate all but correct hypothesis and leaves subjects with fewest choices.

• Requires better reasoning and memory of positive and negative instances

• Does not provide way to control the riskiness of choices

• All red cards, all cards with circles and all red circles

Successive Scanning

• Tests single hypothesis at a time

• First green, then square, then border and so on

• More of guessing game

• Does not guarantee in formativeness of choices or regulating risk

• Used when cognitive going gets rough or one has good reason to believe that particular hypothesis is true

• Less efficient than simultaneous scanning

• Requires less thinking and less memory

Conservative Focusing

• Find card with positive instance and use card as focus for future choice

• Best for conjunctive concepts

• Less thinking and time

• More efficient than successive scanning – does not waste choices on positive instances that eliminates no hypothesis

• Disadvantage – if instance is not easily located on demand

(+) Focus Card

(+)

(-)

(-)

(+)

Focus Gambling

• Subject uses focus card but changes more than 1 feature at a time

• Focus card of 3 green circles and 2 borders might change both number of circles and color to see whether you obtain positive or negative instance

• Applied when solving in few steps brings big reward or loose little in many trials

Single Trial

• (+) Focus Card

• (+) 3 figures

Multiple Trials

• (+) Focus Card

• (-)

• (-)

• (-) (red is concept and not 3 figures)

(+) 3 red

Discrimination Learning

• Concept is learnt when the ability to discriminate is generalized to other objects with same feature

• When offer apple – say apple

• When offer other things (ball, cup) – say other names

• So child associates apple with fruit (size, shape, edible)

• Conjunctive Concept – apple is any round object that one can eat (this is stimulus generalization)

• Now there is need to differentiate between plums, pears and apples.

• It requires appropriate words in concept attainment – discrimination (axe versus plough – used to prepare soil to sow seeds) and abstraction

• Context – understanding concept by series of statements (axe – agricultural tool)

• Definition – describing a concept and explaining it (axe as implement used to cut the wood)

Factors Affecting Learning Concepts

• Transfer – when you a concept similar to one being learned, then you can learn rapidly

• Distinctiveness – degree to which common elements are isolated, grouped or made conspicuous

• Ability to manipulate – redraw, redesign, rearrange

• People learn faster if all relevant information is available at the same time instead of being given only a piece of information at a time

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