Psychology Study Material: Endocrine System and Pineal Gland

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Endocrine System

Endocrine system is a collection of glands that produce hormones that regulate body՚s growth, metabolism, and sexual development and function. The hormones are released into the bloodstream and transported to tissues and organs throughout the body.

Endocrine System
  • Although there are eight major endocrine glands scattered throughout the body, they are still considered to be one system because they have similar functions, similar mechanisms of influence, and many important interrelationships.
  • Endocrine glands are known as the “Managers of Human Body” .

Endocrine system is the system in which a number of glands secrets numerous hormones directly into the blood stream which regulate:

  • Body՚s growth
  • Metabolism
  • Sexual development and functions, and
  • Other vital functions of the body
  • Endocrine glands are ductless glands that secrete their hormones directly into the bloodstream.
  • Hormones act as chemical messenger controlling various functions, reaching to the tissues and other vital organs of the body.

Pineal Gland

  • The pineal gland, also known as pineal body, is found in the brain stem.
  • It is small and cone-shaped in structure

Main function:

  • Affects reproductive development
  • Daily physiologic/biological cycles

Pituitary Gland

Size and Shape

It is a small gland________ diameter of about 1 centimetre or size of a pea.


  • It is connected with the hypothalamus by a slender stalk and also surrounded by bone.
  • Secretes a number of different hormones that influence/affect various other endocrine glands.

There are two distinguishable regions in the gland that have different secretions and functions:

  • The anterior lobe
  • The posterior lobe
  • Hormones of Anterior Lobe

Growth Hormone

Protein that regulates and also stimulates the:

  • Growth of bones,
  • Muscles, and other organs of the body by promoting protein synthesis.

The effect of this hormone is important and very much apparent because it affects height.

Developed by: