Cultural Perspective Yogendra Singh Sociology YouTube Lecture Handouts

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Title: Cultural Perspective Yogendra Singh

Cultural Perspective Yogendra Singh: Caste & Social Stratification, Structural Units Sociology


  • Human behaviour determined culturally not genetically
  • Learned aspects of human society
  • Includes language, convention and customs
  • It tells how humans are different from other species
  • Culturological orientation in India began with M. N. Srinivas
  • “Religion and Society among the Coorgs of South India”

Yogendra Singh

  • More focused on theoretical work
  • Not a Marxist or functionalist
  • Structural functionalist methodology
  • Works on Modernization, social stratification, Indian society, cultural change


  • Modernization of Indian tradition
  • Traditions of non-violence, 1973.
  • Essays on modernization in India, 1978.
  • Indian Sociology: Social Conditioning and Emerging Concerns, 1986
  • Social Change in India: Crisis and Resilience, 1993
  • Social stratification and change in India, 1997
  • Culture change in India: identity and globalization, 2000.
  • Ideology and theory in Indian sociology, 2004

Views on Social Stratification

  • Social process
  • Unequal distribution of rewards and resources
  • Issues of stratification are related with social equality, social order, social justice, power, etc.
  • Understanding changing process with focus on the ‘why’
  • Studied caste hierarchy in Indian social system
  • Compared with class hierarchy

Structural Units of Stratification

  • Caste system and social stratification
  • Class system and social stratification

Caste System and Social Stratification

  • Institutionalized inequality
  • Closed social system
  • Division of labour – based on reciprocity and interdependence
  • Emphasis on quality of caste not the skill or performance
  • In his study of caste and power in 1969, he found that:
  • Changing caste system refers to social stratification patterns
  • Stratification on the basis of caste primarily
  • The treatment of caste is unavoidable
  • Hence, power and wealth become secondary

Class System and Social Stratification

  • Connected with caste system in India
  • He questioned whether class is present everywhere as a phenomenon
  • Some sociologists believe that in India, caste stratification is rural and class stratification is urban


Q. 1. According to who, it is difficult to draw a line between where caste principle of stratification ceases and class principle begins in India?

1. McKim Marriott

2. M. N. Srinivas

3. N. K. Bose

4. Yogendra Singh

Answer: 4

Q. 2. Which of these was the earliest work of Yogendra Singh?

1. Essays on Modernization

2. Social Stratification and Social Change in India

3. Ideology and Theory in Indian Society

4. Modernization of Indian Tradition

Answer: 4

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