Agriculture Sector Pattern and Structure of Growth 2: Economic YouTube Lecture Handouts

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Green Revolution

  • HYV seeds, increased use of fertilizers and irrigation were introduced and are collectively known as the Green Revolution, which provided the increase in production needed to make India self-sufficient in food grains.
  • Food grains output increased from 81 million tones in 3rd plan (annual average) to 202 million tones in the 10th plan.
  • All of this led to rapid increase in productivity, Continued expansion of farming areas etc. But certain negative impacts were witnessed.
  • Negative impact on environment and health due to excessive use of fertilizers and pesticides; depletion of soil nutrients; depletion of water resources including ground water, high costs of inputs.

Tricolour Revolution

  • It has 3 parts.
  • Saffron Energy Revolution for promotion and better utilization of solar energy in the farm sector.
  • White Revolution to ensure cattle welfare and further the goals of White revolution.
  • Blue Revolution for fishermen՚s welfare, cleansing rivers and sea and conserving water.

Evergreen Revolution

  • The concept was given by renowned agricultural scientist MS Swaminathan.
  • It emphasizes on organic agriculture and green agriculture with the help of integrated pest management, integrated nutrient supply and integrated natural resource management.
  • The core of the Evergreen Revolution is to promote sustainability in the farm sector.

New Agriculture Policy 2000

  • To give greater emphasis on livestock, animal husbandry, dairy, aquaculture.
  • To ensure and achieve food and nutrition security. (POSHAN Abhiyan, NFSA)
  • MSP: ensuring adequate prices to farmers by direct procurement.
  • Increasing public investment in rural infrastructure like electrification, roadways, irrigation, storage facilities etc.
  • To provide crop insurance facility. National Agriculture Crop insurance scheme was launched & now replaced with PM FBY.
  • Create off-farm activities and promote allied sector. This will augment income in off farm sector.
  • Allow private sector participation to eliminate certain structural issues.

Farmer Producer Organizations (FPOs)

  • Cabinet committee on economic affairs gave approval for setting up of 10,000 FPO in 5 years. (2019 - 2023)
  • An FPO is formed by primary producers, like farmers, milk producers, fishermen, weavers, rural artisans, craftsmen, etc. Thus, it is a group.
  • FPOs are a legalized form of farmer-owned institutions and are registered under companies act.
  • FPO՚s ensures that Farmers will have better collective strength for better access to quality input, technology, credit and better marketing access through economies of scale for better realization of income.
  • Small and marginal farmers will benefit the most as they do not have economic strength to apply production technology, services and marketing including value addition.

Post 2007 Scenario (Mega Food Parks)

  • Focus was given on Food Processing sector. Thus, Mega food park scheme was launched in 2008.
  • The annual post-harvest losses in India stands at ₹ 92,651 crore. Thus, the annual losses stands at 6 % of the total food production.
  • Presently, Food processing sector employs 7 million people. Presently, 13 mega food parks are at various stages of implementation. The objectives are
    • To provide state of the art infrastructure for food processing in the country on a pre-identified cluster
    • To ensure value addition and connecting rural area with global value chain.
    • To establish a sustainable raw material supply chain for each cluster.
    • To facilitate induction of latest technology
    • Quality assurance through better process control and capacity

Practice Question

Q 1. Which agency is responsible for procurement, distribution and storage of food grain production in India?

A. Ministry of Agriculture

B. Food Corporation of India

C. NAFED

D. TRIFED

Answer: B

Q 2. The main components of evergreen revolution are:

1. Up gradation soil health

2. Promote lab to land demonstrations

3. Promoting rain water harvesting

Which statements are correct?

a) 1,2 and 3

b) 4 only

c) 1 and 3

d) 2 and 3

Answer: a

Q 3. Which of the following statement is not correct?

A. India is the second largest producer of fruits in the world.

B. India is the biggest producer of vegetables in the world.

C. Production of fruits, vegetables and spices called horticulture.

D. Uttar Pradesh is the largest producer of the wheat in India.

Answer: B

Q 4. Who implements Mega Food park scheme

1) Ministry of agriculture

2) Ministry of Food Processing and industries

3) Ministry of consumer affairs and Public Distribution

4) CCEA (Cabinet committee on economic affairs)

Answer: 2

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