# Cartography – Maps & Scale YouTube Lecture Handout

Get video tutorial on: Examrace YouTube Channel

Watch Video Lecture on YouTube: Cartography – Maps & Scale YouTube Lecture Handout

Cartography – Maps & Scale YouTube Lecture Handout

## Agenda

• Data and its types

• Map and Scale

• Analyzing Maps

To view sample questions and notes visit www.doorsteptutor.com

## Map

• Map is graphical representation of real world.

• Art of map making = Cartography

• Maps can be:

• Reference or Base Maps: Show natural and human-made objects from geographical environment with an emphasis on location, atlas or topographic maps

• Thematic Maps: Geographical distribution of one phenomenon or spatial associations that occur between a number of phenomena

• Isopleth maps - Isolines connect points of equal magnitude.

• Choropleth map - tonal shadings are graduated to represent areal variations in number or density within a region, usually a formal region.

## Thematic Maps

• Quantitative:

• Chorochromatic: Various Color

• Choroschematic: Symbols

• Isopleth: Lines

• Proportional Symbols: Size of symbols

• Dot Density Maps: Population

• Qualitative

## Why We Need Maps?

• To represent a larger area than we can see

• To show a phenomenon or process that is not visible by eyes

• To present information concisely

• To show spatial relationships

## How to Prepare Maps?

• By actual survey

• By photographs

• By free sketches

• By Computer Maps

## Elements of Scale Map

• Symbols and a legend

• Scale

• Direction (indicated by the north arrow)

• Map grid or coordinate system

• About the map (date created, title, author, source information)

## Reading Map is Indeed an Art!

• Maps are selective views of reality

• Size of the map relative to reality (scale)

• What’s on the map (symbolization)

• Shape of the map (projection)

## Scale

• How long?

• How far?

• How wide?

• How far on the map and how far on the ground?

## Map Scale

• Representative Fraction: Is a ratio like 1:1000

• Verbal Statement: 1:1,000,000 verbally is "1 centimeter on the map equals 10 kilometers on the Earth's surface"

• Graphic Scale

### 1:25,000 Scale

• 1 centimetre (cm) on map = 25,000 cm on the ground

• 1 cm on the map = 250 metres (m) on the ground

• 4 cm on the map = 1 kilometre (km) on the ground

## Reduction & Enlaargement

• After reducing a map from 1:10,000 to 1:50,000 scale, the new map is, the original line or scale & times the area.

• After enlarging a map from 1: 100,000 to 1: 20,000 scale, the new map is times the original line or scale & times the area of the original scale.

• If a map with scale 1: 100,000 is enlarged by 10 times the new scale can be calculated as follows. Assume that the new scale is , then, or , so & enlarged scale is .

## Reduction/Enlargement by RF

When the map is enlarged the RF is decreased. E.g., if the original map with scale 10 cm = 5 km, is enlarged 4 times, the new RF will be 1:12500

## Maps Based on Scale

• Cadastral or Revenue Maps: Large scale 16-20 inches to 1 mile

• Topographical Maps: Single purpose, 1 in = 1 mile

• Wall Maps: Depict Large Area 1 in = 4 miles

• Atlas Maps: Small-scale chorographical, 1:2000000

## Map Symbols

• Symbols are a code instead of text

• Symbols can be

• Point: Each symbol count as one occurrence

• Qualitative: Explains location

• Quantitative: Shows distribution

• Line: One-dimensional for borders, roads etc.

• Area: two-dimensional like garden, plot etc.

• Consider shape, size, orientation, pattern, color, value

Glide to success with Doorsteptutor material for UGC - Get complete video lectures from top expert with unlimited validity: cover entire syllabus, expected topics, in full detail- anytime and anywhere & ask your doubts to top experts.

Developed by: