Hidden & Exclusive Propositions Western Logic Square of Opposition YouTube Lecture Handouts

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Hidden Propositions & Exclusive Propositions| Square of Opposition | Logic | Hardly, Mostly, Few

Hidden & Exclusive Propositions Western Logic Square of Opposition

Subject and Predicate in Propositions

Hidden Propositions

Hidden Propositions

A - Type hidden propositions:

  • All positive propositions beginning with each, every, and any.
  • A positive sentence with a particular person as its subject.
  • A positive sentence with a very definite exception.

Eg: Each of them plays football.

  • He should be awarded.
  • All members except Kavitha have a share of profit.

Hidden Propositions

Hidden Propositions

E - Type hidden proposition

  • All negative sentences beginning with no one, none, and not a single
  • A sentence with a particular person as its subject but a negative sense.
  • A negative sentence with a very definite exception.
  • An interrogative sentence, which is used to make an assertion.

Eg: None can escape from death.

  • Swathi is not an IAS officer.
  • No student except Salim has attend the party.
  • Is there any person who can cheat himself?

Hidden Propositions

Hidden Propositions

I - type-hidden propositions:

  • Positive propositions beginning with words such as most, a few, mostly, generally, almost, frequently, and negative propositions beginning with words such as few, seldom, hardly, scarcely, rarely and little.
  • A positive sentence with an exception, which is not definite.

Eg: Very few writers research before they write.

  • Seldom are people not jealous.
  • All students except five have failed.

Hidden Propositions

Hidden Propositions

O - Type hidden propositions:

  • All negative propositions beginning with words such as all, every, any, and each.
  • Negative propositions with words as most, a few, mostly, generally, almost, and frequently.
  • Positive words beginning with few, seldom, hardly, scarcely, rarely and little.
  • A negative sentence with an exception, which is not definite.

E. g. : not all men are honest

  • Most of the books have not been read.
  • Girls are usually not brave.
  • Rarely is a rich man worried.
  • No students except a few are absent.

Exclusive Propositions

Exclusive Propositions
  • A statement beginning with ‘only’ , ‘alone’ , ‘none but’ or ‘none else but’ is called exclusive proposition. Such propositions can be reduced to A or E or I type.
  • Only brave men are pilots.
  • This sentence means, “No coward man is a pilot” and “All pilots are brave men.”

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