Modern Western Philosophy Logical Positivism for Maharashtra PSC Exam

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Complete Video at - Modern Western Philosophy - Logical Positivism & Principle Verification (Philosophy)

Logical Positivism

  • Logical Positivism is the method of philosophy which believes in Empiricism.
  • As a result, it is also called Logical Empiricism and Verification-ism.
  • Empiricism is the branch of philosophy which believes that knowledge is possible only via sense-experience.
  • AJ. Ayer, Wittgenstein and Rudolf Carnap are some of the significant logical positivists.
  • They are also known to be the members of the Vienna Circle.
  • For logic positivists the theory of verifiability of the meaning is significant most.
  • According to them, only the statements that can be directly verified through empiricism/logical proof are meaningful.
  • It is also referred to as the verification principle. It is regarded as an important doctrine of logical positivists without which the doctrine would cease to exist.

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Members of the Vienna Circle

Members of the Vienna Circle
  • Rudolf Carnap
  • Ludwig Wittgenstein
  • Alfred J. Ayer
  • Carl G. Hempel
  • Herbert Feigl
  • Moritz Schlick
  • Otto Neurath
  • Hans Reinchenbach

Positivism and Logical Positivism

Positivism and Logical Positivism

The Verification Principle

  • The verification principle signifies a particular statement which is verified.
  • It determines that whether the particular statement is regarded as true or false.
  • It is through this principle, we come to know whether the statement is true or false, in case the statement is neither true nor false, then it becomes meaningless.
  • According to them, the method lies in its verification experience.
  • Logical Positivists believe that metaphysics has no meaning.
  • They say metaphysical statements are meaning-less because they cannot be proved through logical proof.
  • According to them, metaphysics is thus regarded as a “pseudo-concept” that deals with, “pseudo-statements” .

Rejection of Metaphysics

  • Logical Positivists reject the branch of philosophy named, metaphysics. According to them, there are numerous reasons to reject the branch of metaphysics. Some of them are;
  • According to Wittgenstein, metaphysics is a pseudo-concept because it lacks objective reference and assertions.
  • It is also rejected because it lacks the principle of verifiability.
  • Similarly, Rudolf Carnap rejects the branch of metaphysics and says that metaphysical statements are devoid of sense and meaning.
  • In other words, according to him, metaphysical statements are sterile in nature.
  • Although, metaphysical statements follow the rules of syntax, yet, they are regarded as meaningless and senseless in nature because they are neither true nor false.
  • On the other hand, A. J Ayer makes a distinction between metaphysics and philosophy.
  • He believes, philosophy and science are commonly linked together because philosophy is dependent upon science for its principles and hypothesis.
  • The purpose of philosophy is to define and clarify the concepts, those concepts are used in science too.
  • He says metaphysics has no relation with philosophy. Metaphysical statements are not verifiable scientifically.
  • Hence, he rejects the branch of metaphysics and says that philosophy and metaphysics are mutually exclusive in nature

The Scientific Process


  • it deals with data gathering or facts finding.


  • it deals with formulation laws. It is also called Induction.


  • it deals with findings and searching for new facts or information.


  • it deals with subsuming new facts. It is also called Deduction.










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