Sankhya Philosophy Exponents Philosophy YouTube Lecture Handouts

Get unlimited access to the best preparation resource for competitive exams : get questions, notes, tests, video lectures and more- for all subjects of your exam.

Title: Sankhya Philosophy

What is Sankhya Philosophy

  • It is Astika orthodox school of Indian philosophy.
  • It is a Sanskrit word which means numbers.
  • Oldest school of Indian philosophy.
  • MAHARISHI KAPILA Muni founder.
  • Sankhya also means divine/perfect knowledge.


  • Kapila
  • Ishvara Krishna
  • Gaudapada
  • Vacaspati


Metaphysics: Dualistic realism Prakriti and Purusha

  • Prakriti: Unconscious, active, unintelligible and Uncountable.
    • Prakriti contains 3 gunas.
      • Sattva (Lightness, illumination, joy)
      • Rajas (Dynamism, Activity, Excitation, pain)
      • Tamas (Inertia, Heaviness, obstruction)
  • Purusha: Consciousness, inactive, neither cause nor effect.
  • It influences prakriti.


  • There are 3 sources of knowledge.
    • Pratayaksha (Perception) : It is a direct knowledge of an object gained through sense organ.
    • Anumana (Inference)
    • Sabda (Testimony)


  • To differentiate prakriti and purusha.
  • To attain liberation.
  • To follow Yama and niyama.
  • To practice yoga.

Fundamental Principles

  • It is both theist (It accepts Vedas) and atheist (World is not created by God) .
  • Satkaryavada (Pre-existence of the effect in the cause) .
  • Liberation can be attained by knowing the difference between Prakriti and Purusha.

Aims of Education

  • To Achieve self-realisation
  • To prepare the child
  • To have positive attitude towards life.
  • To develop the mind, ego, and intellect of the students.
  • To enable the individual, to attain freedom from the miseries
    • Adhyatmic: intrinsic
    • Adhibhutika: Extrinsic
    • Adhidevika: supernatural power


  • Vedas, Upanishads and religious studies.
  • Natural science, physical science, yoga for discipline.

Methods of Teaching

  • Lecture
  • Discussion
  • Question-Answer
  • Project Methods

Developed by: