Health Lifestyle and Chronic Diseases Psychology YouTube Lecture Handouts

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Health Lifestyle and Chronic Diseases

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Hypertension

What is Hypertension?

  • It is a condition in which the blood supply to the vessels is excessive.
  • It is symptomless and risk factor for heart disease, kidney failure or stroke.
  • It can occur when cardiac output is too high
  • If left untreated it affects cognitive functioning, learning, memory, attention, abstract reasoning, mental flexibility, etc.

Causes of Hypertension

  • Failure of kidney to regulate blood pressure.
  • Low socioeconomic status
  • Genetic factors – study done by T. W. Smith et al. , 1987
  • Emotional factors
  • Stress
  • Psychosocial factors

How Can We Measure Hypertension?

  • It is assessed by levels of –
    • systolic blood pressure &
    • diastolic blood pressure
  • Measured by sphygmomanometer
  • Normal b. p. should be under 120
  • Mild hypertension: 140 - 159
  • Moderate hypertension: 160 - 179
  • Severe hypertension: above 180
  • People at risk show less recovery following sympathetic arousal.

How Can We Treat Hypertension?

  • Common and most effective treatment is diuretics.
  • Low sodium diet
  • Reduction of alcohol intake
  • Weight control
  • Caffeine restrictions
  • Drug treatment –
    • 1. beta adrenergic blockers
    • 2. Central adrenergic inhibitors.
    • 3. Peripheral adrenergic inhibitors.
    • 4. Alpha adrenergic blockers
  • Cognitive behavioral therapy – Biofeedback, Progressive muscle relaxation, hypnosis, meditation or exercise.
  • Deep breathing, self-reinforcement, self-calming talk, time management, etc.

Multiple Choice Questions

1. What is the range of moderate hypertension?

Ans – 160 - 179

2. Which instrument is used to measure hypertension?

Ans – Sphygmomanometer

3. What is the most common method of treatment of hypertension?

Ans – Diuretics

4. Does hypertension have any particular set of symptoms?

Ans – Hypertension is symptomless unlike other Chronic Diseases.

Chapters

0: 00 Hypertension

0: 14 What Is Hypertension?

0: 56 Causes of Hypertension

3: 22 How Can We Measure Hypertension?

4: 28 How Can We Treat Hypertension?

6: 27 MCQ about Hypertension

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