Ecological Degradation and Environmental Pollution Sociology YouTube Lecture Handouts

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Ecological Degradation and Environmental Pollution Sociology


  • Coined in 1868
  • Oikos - home and logos- study of
  • Relationship between organisms and their environment

Levels in Ecology

  • Organisms – single species
  • Population – multiple of same species
  • Community – multiple species – interbreeding
  • Ecosystem – structural unit of biosphere
  • Biosphere – all combined together


  • Capacity of species to survive diminishes
  • Overexploitation of the resources
  • Depletion of resources such as air, water and soil
  • Destruction of habitat
  • The extinction of wildlife
  • Pollution
  • Climate change
  • Global warming
  • Coral reef bleaching


Air Pollution

  • When harmful substances are added to atmosphere in solid/liquid/gaseous form
  • Degrades air quality
  • Pollutants:
    • PM
      • Carcinogenic
      • Black lung disease
      • Emitted by thermal power plants, steel industries
      • Acid rain
      • Fossil fuel burning
      • Due to crop residue burning, urbanization, industries, etc.
    • CFC – ACs, fridge, sprays
  • Smog
  • VOC- paints, petroleum, AC, etc.
  • Hydrocarbon burning – vehicular emission


  • Capture air pollution
  • Smart and green technologies
  • Clean energy
  • Utilising CNG
  • Reduce vehicular emission – BSVI norms
  • Lead free petrol
  • Govt. Initiatives – SAFAR, NAQ monitoring programme, AQI, etc.

Water and Marine Pollution

  • Types:
    • Surface
    • Ground water
  • Threat to marine life
  • Causes:
    • Sewage
    • Oil spills
    • Plastic debris
    • Industrial waste
    • Underground water pollution
    • Agricultural waste
    • Community waste
  • Diseases – cholera, blue baby syndrome, black foot disease, etc.


  • Water Pollution and Prevention Act, 1974
  • Water Quality Monitoring
  • Namami Gange
  • Jal Shakti Abhiyan

Noise Pollution

  • More than 75 db
  • Noise Pollution Rules, 2020 under Environment Protection Act, 1986
  • Silence zones

Solid Waste

  • Types:
    • E waste
    • Plastic waste
    • Hazardous waste
    • Domestic waste


  • Solid Waste Management Rules, 2016
  • E – waste Management Rules
  • Reuse, recycle
  • Waste to energy models
  • Composting


Q. 1. The Atal Bhujal Yojana is:

(a) Central sector scheme

(b) Focused on community participation

(c) demanding interventions for sustainable ground water management in identified water stressed areas in seven States of the country.

(d) Karnataka is one of the stressed areas states


1. a, b and c

2. c and d only

3. c only

4. a, b, c and d

Ans. 4

Q. 2. Which of these are not true about SAFAR?

(a) It stands for System of Air Quality and Weather Forecasting and Research

(b) It is an initiative by Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology, Pune

(c) It helps to know about temperature-based air quality

(d) It develops mitigation strategies for policy makers


1. b only

2. c only

3. d only

4. b and d

Ans. 2

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