Emile Durkheim՚s Theory of Division of Labour: Introduction and Types of Solidarity

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  • Durkheim՚s Thesis
  • He presented non-economical view
  • Division of Labour ensures solidarity of society
  • Book: “Division of Labour in Society”
  • Division of Labour is a social fact
  • Separation and specialization of work
  • Separation leads to specialization

Types of Solidarity

Types of Solidarity

Mechanical solidarity: Individuals believe that they are connected through similar work

  • Small society
  • Primitive
  • Similar people
  • Language, dressings, beliefs are same
  • Material density = moral density
  • Repressive law (big punishment) so, social control is high
  • Solidarity of similarity
  • Division of Labour based on sex and age of people
  • Women – household chores and men – outside work

Organic Solidarity

Organic Solidarity
  • Large population
  • Cosmopolitan
  • Not similar
  • Cities
  • Specialized people
  • Focus on individuals
  • Restitutive laws (mild punishment)
  • Solidarity of inter-dependence


  • Non – economic point of view
  • Compared two extremes of population


Q. 1. Methodological tool of Emile Durkheim is

(a) Phenomenology

(b) Social fact

(c) Religion

(d) Division of labour

Ans. (d)

Q. 2. Contribution of social division of labour has been discussed in depth by

(A) Emile Durkheim

(B) Max Weber

(C) Vilfredo Pareto

(D) Pitirim Sorokin

Answer: (A)