Modernity: Introduction and Good, Bad of Modernity and Transformation of Social Culture

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Introduction of Modernity
  • 19th Century Europe
  • New ideas and beliefs
  • Change in culture and society


  • Renaissance
  • French Revolution
  • Industrial Revolution

To study these changes, Sociology as a discipline emerged.

  • Inevitable
  • Irreversible
  • News ways of thinking, acting
  • Shift from faith to logic and rationality
  • Questioning of Theocratic rule
  • Rise of printing press
  • Liberal philosophy

Good and Bad of Modernity

Good and Bad of Modernity
Good and Bad of Modernity
  • Man, as the center of the world
  • Orthodoxy to Rationality
  • New social order
  • Participative
  • Social reconstruction

Transformation of Social Culture

  • Migration
  • Class identity
  • Division of class among class between those who developed and who did not
  • Specialization
  • Rise of new society

St. Simon

Ethical sociology

August Comte

  • Metaphysical society (discards belief in a concrete God)
  • Positivist
  • Modernity is hope
  • Once society is progressive. No coming back.


  • Range from simple to complex society
  • Collective consciousness


  • Control of goods, surplus
  • Dominance of one class
  • Suffering of mass
  • Inequality
  • Revolution is the solution


  • Historical process
  • Protestant ethics
  • Bureaucracy, Democracy, Education, Economy
  • Institutions


  • Range of commodities
  • Migration
  • Employment
  • Standard of living
  • Unity of races, classes

Scenario Today

  • Loss of ecosystem, environment
  • Data theft, privacy invasion
  • Market monopoly
  • Consumerism
  • Pseudo feeling of being modern
  • Skepticism


Q. 1. Assertion (A) : The concept of ‘secularization’ as used in Indian Constitution implies that State does not provide patronage to any religion.

Reason (R) : Religion does not hold significance in modern society.


(A) (A) is true and (R) is false and (R) is the correct explanation of (A) .

(B) (A) is false and (R) is true.

(C) (A) is true and (R) is false and (R) is not the correct explanation of (A) .

(D) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A) .

Answer: (C)

Q. 2. Match an item in List-I with an item in List-II.

Match an Item in List-I with an Item in List-II
List – I (Books)List – II (Thinkers)
a. Modernisation of Indian Tradition1. Y. Singh
b. When a great Tradition Modernises2. M. Singer
c. Caste in Modern India3. M. N. Srinivas
d. Caste, Class and Power4. Andre Betille

(A) 1 2 3 4

(B) 4 3 2 1

(C) 3 2 1 4

(D) 2 1 4 3

Answer: (A)





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