Maharashtra PSC Exam: Industrial Dispute in India

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What is an industrial dispute, give out the causes and consequences of an industrial disputes.

Answer: An industrial dispute refers to any disagreement in industrial relations which may be in the form of a strike and or other forms of industrial action between employers and employees. Industrial disputes are costly and damaging to companies and employees alike. Ideally, an organization՚s culture and procedures should seek to avoid or resolve any potential conflict. However, it՚s not always possible to prevent industrial disputes from arising. Collection of statistics on disputes which involve stoppages of ten working days or more. The statistics are compiled mainly from data obtained from employers on the nature and extent of the dispute. Once all disputes for a month are identified, additional information on the nature and extent of each dispute is obtained through a mail-out/mail-back collection, usually to employers, on the nature and extent of the dispute. Some data, e. g. Working days lost in a particular strike, may be imputed. Due to the imputation procedures and the limitations on identification of disputes, the statistics should not be regarded as an exact measure of the extent of industrial disputation. Cause of dispute Usually industrial dispute is due to mental unrest or discount in the workers. This unrest is psychological fact but it also has social political and economics aspects. Briefly the causes of industrial disputes, in India may be classifies as follows

  • Low wages
  • Unsatisfactory working conditions
  • Demand for leave with pay
  • Demand for adequate bonus
  • Non recognition of trade unions
  • Retrenchment due to sophisticated machinery
  • Resistance to misconduct of officers
  • Misconduct of intermediaries


statistics relate to the reported main cause of stoppage of work and not necessarily all causes that may have been responsible for the stoppage of work. For these reasons, the statistics do not reflect the relative importance of all causes of disputes as perceived by both employers and employees. The causes are classified from information supplied by employers and according to standards determined by the International Labour Organisation. Disputes are initially classified according to whether a dispute occurred during a process of workplace/enterprise bargaining. A process of workplace/enterprise bargaining refers to the negotiations that take place between an employer and their employees (or their representatives) , in reaching an agreement over pay and employment conditions. Disputes not related to a process of workplace/enterprise bargaining include disputes relating to award negotiations and disputes relating to the content or application of an existing agreement (and do not seek to amend or terminate the agreement) . Disputes are then further classified according to the main cause of the dispute. The classifications for Enterprise Bargaining (EB) related disputes are Remuneration; Employment conditions and Other EB related. The classifications for Non-Enterprise Bargaining (Non-EB) related disputes are Remuneration; Employment conditions; Health and safety; Job security; Managerial policy; Union issues and Other non-EB related. Consequences of an industrial dispute The important consequences of industrial disputes inj India are the following Unrest As we have already mentioned industrial conflicts and disputes lead to widespread unrest in social life and also distribution of political harmony and peace Economics loss the industrial disputes most obviously injure the economics interest of both employees and employers. This effect is direct and palpable, but indirectly and in a subtle way these also prove economically harmful to nation as a whole. Everyone ultimately is affected. Hardship of workers: The majority of workers in India not earn enough to be able to save for rainy day. They live hands to mouth, existence if not worse. Therefore strikes and lockouts put unbearable burden to them and they are reduced to the levels of beggars Threat to social security and public peace. If industrial disputes spread in an epidemic form they pose to threat to public peace.


what is an automation? What are the steps involved in process of automation

Answer: Automation (ancient Greek:= self dictated) or industrial automation is the use of computers to control industrial machinery and processes, replacing human operators. It is a step beyond mechanization, where human operators are provided with machinery to help them in their jobs. The most visible part of automation can be said to be industrial robotics … The implementation of processes by automatic means; the theory, art or technique of making a process more automatic; the investigation, design, development and application of methods for rendering processes automatic, self-moving or self-controlling; the conversion of a procedure, a process or equipment to automatic operation. The act of implementing the control of equipment with advanced technology; usually involving electronic hardware; “automation replaces human workers by machines” the condition of being automatically operated or controlled; “automation increases productivity” equipment used to achieve automatic control or operation; “this factory floor is a showcase for automation and robotic equipment” Advantage of automation Absolute control of speed and position Repeatability of moves Coordinating multiple piece moves Offline editing and simulation Moving pieces in complicated paths Reduced manual handling Repeating moves indefinitely Automatic safety checking Improved efficiency Safe movement of a single piece controlled Steps involved in process of automation Selection of automation machine First of all for automation we have to select these machines, which are self regulated, and the finished or semi-finished product should be passed out or to next machine without the touch of hand. For example there are machines into which you put a coin and coke bottle or ticket pops out. If the product is in semi-finished stage the next machines lifts it all by itself and does the next process on it. The entire product may be finished by a single machine or may require dozen of, more for the purpose. Control of quality After the selection of machine the next step is to decide what product is to be manufactured and what form. Once this is determined the machine is accordingly fitted and the product of uniform quality is produced. Use of computer In earlier technology the automatic machines were looked after by men but now even the control and computers do operation of machines.

write a synopsis on the impact of industrialization upon various aspects of society

Answer: The important consequences of industrialization in India are as follows Urbanization As a consequences of industrialization the population in the cities has gone up Impact on urbanization The process of industrialization increases the urban population. It is an impact of industrialization that there is progressive rise in the population of cities in India The following are some of the important social influence of urbanization

  • Decline of sociality
  • Decline of social control
  • Decline in family control
  • Decline in the influence of religion
  • Change in the institution of marriage
  • Change in institution of family
  • Change in the condition of women
  • Increase of male ratio
  • Commercializes entertainment
  • House shortage
  • Growth of slums

Consequences of Industrialization

The economics consequences of industrialization The following are the important consequences in the economics field of industrialization in India Growth of capitalization Vast production of steel cement, jute, sugar ext. With this avst production India was self sufficient and start even export

  • Growth of trade
  • Division of labour and specialization
  • Economics crisis and unemployment
  • Industrial disputes and accidents
  • Problem of workers
  • Spread of socialism and individualism
  • Class conflict
  • Decline of rural industry