Features of Dravida School & Four Styles of Dravidian Architecture for Punjab PSC

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Features of Dravida School

Image of Features of Dravida School

Image of Features of Dravida School

  • Single vimaan on main shrine

  • Shikhara octagonal shape on vimaan

  • Pillared wall

  • Presence of tank

  • Huge gopuram gateway

  • Sculptures of dwarpal instead of ganga/mithuna of nagara school

  • Dravidian architecture developed dynastically

  • Dravidian style was initiated by pallavas and flourished by cholas

  • Ex. gangeykondacholapuram bu Rajendra 1

  • Brihadeswara temple at tanjore,tamilnadu

Four Styles of Dravidian Architecture

1. Pallava School of Art

Image of Pallava School of Art

Image of Pallava School of Art

  • Around 600 A.D.

  • Dravidian temple architecture started by pallavas

  • Developed in 4 phases

  • Mahendra varman-600-625 A.D.

  • Just the Rock cut Caves

  • The word mandap was used instead of temple

  • No real temple structure

  • Ex-adivaraha cave,Durga cave-mahishsurmardini,panchpandava cave

  • Narsimhan varman

  • Decoration in rock cut caves.

  • Mandapas now became rathas

  • 6 rathas in one cave

  • Largest ratha-dharmraja,smallest ratha-draupadi

  • Dharmaraja ratha was the precursor of the Dravidian style

Image of Narasimha varman temple dravidian style

Image of Narasimha Varman Temple Dravidian Style

  • Rajsimhan varman

  • Real structural temples

  • Open air carving in relief on a rock surface

  • Sculpture different from gupta sculpture

  • More oval face, higher cheek bones, great slenderness and freer movements of the forms.

  • Exellency in animal representation

  • Later, structural temples made of masonry and stone.

  • Ex-kailashnath temple at Kancheepuram 3 parts sanctum with pyramedial tower,mandapa and rectangular courtyard-for subsidiary shrines

  • shore temple,mahabalipuram

Image of shore temple, Mahabalipuram

Image of Shore Temple, Mahabalipuram

  • Nandivarman

  • Started the concept of small temples

  • Confined all the features of Dravidian style

2. Chola School of Architecture

Image of Brihedshawara temple

Image of Brihedshawara Temple

  • 10-11th centuries

  • Revived the pallava heritage with fresh approach

  • The vimaana dominates the whole structure.

  • 2 beautiful creations Brihadeswara temple at thanjaur,tamilnadu

  • Gangeykonda cholapuram

  • Brihadeswara temple dedicated to shiva

  • Huge lingam

  • A massive monolithic bull(2nd biggest,1st at lepakshi)

  • On the square forming the topmost tier is poised a huge rounded cupola of a single stone,the shadow of which never falls on the ground.-unique achievement

  • Immense gopuram

3. Vijaynagar School of Architecture

Image of Hampi temple

Image of Hampi Temple

  • Around 16th century

  • Hampi was the capital.

  • Important ruler krishnadevraya built temples, pillared mandapas, Gopuram called as rayagopurams.

  • Larger gopuram and High enclose walls.

  • More decoration perticular design supernatural horse

  • Secular buildings were built.

  • for ex. lotus mahal

  • Vitthalswamy temple

  • Amman shrine and kalyana gopuram

  • Centraal raised platform surrounded by rows of carved pillars-open pavallion

  • Ex. hall of dance at lepakshi

  • Festival hall at Vellore

  • Virabhadra temple, Lepakshi three figures share four legs.

  • Nandi near lepakshi

  • Seated ‘Ugra narsimha’

4. Nayaka School of Architecture

Image of meenakshi temple at Madurai

Image of Meenakshi Temple at Madurai

  • Around 17th century

  • Dominant in Madurai region

  • The nayakas rose on the fall of the vijayanagara empire

  • Continued the artistic traditions of vijayanagara empire

  • Most famous-meenakshi-sundareswara temple at Madurai

  • By thirumalai nayak

  • Temple complex has 2 shrines

  • 1st shiva as sundareswara

  • 2nd his wife in the form of goddess meenakshi

  • Every space is filled with surface carvings.

  • Large tank surrounded by steps and a pillared portico.

  • Prominent feature development of prakaram roofed embulatory passageways to connect various parts of the temples.

  • Most famous prakaram of this period at rameswaram.

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